Clusters and benchmarks on the dynamics of nanoscience and nanotechnology
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Bibtex string
@article { ,
year = {2007},
keywords = {INTERPERSONAL-TRUST; DECISION-MAKING; NEGOTIATOR BEHAVIOR; INTEGRATIVE
MODEL; 3RD PARTIES; MEDIATION; CONFLICT; ORGANIZATIONS; COOPERATION;
PERFORMANCE},
abstract = {Mechanisms to reconstruct trust are vital for geographically clustered firms, since they must collaborate while they also compete. This research outlines the role of third-party "trust facilitators" in reconstructing trust in cluster environments that have evolved into states of distrust and noncollaboration. Specifically. their trust-facilitating abilities and reputation, when moderated by appropriate process structures and managerial propensities to trust, help demarcate separate relationship domains, which represent new opportunities for trust and cooperation to emerge in relationships previously gridlocked in uncooperativeness. I discuss implications for theory and public policy.},
note = {Mesquita, Luiz F.
110},
pages = {72-91},
number = {1},
volume = {32},
journal = {Academy of Management Review},
title = {Starting over when the bickering never ends: Rebuilding aggregate trust among clustered firms through trust facilitators},
author = {Mesquita , L. F.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2006},
keywords = {multimarket competition; strategic similarity; entry; banking; Spain
RESOURCE-BASED VIEW; MULTIMARKET-CONTACT; SPANISH BANKING; TELEPHONE
INDUSTRY; INTERFIRM RIVALRY; AIRLINE INDUSTRY; PERFORMANCE; FIRM;
DECISIONS; DYNAMICS},
abstract = {The objective of this study is to integrate both multimarket contact and strategic similarity in the analysis of entry decisions. We also analyze the role of the reciprocity, of contacts, market concentration, and coordination mechanisms at moderating the relationship. Our hypotheses are tested through the analysis of entry, behavior into new geographical markets in the Spanish savings bank market. Interestingly, our results offer an opportunity of conciliating conflicting evidence in both the multimarket-mutual forbearance and the heterogeneity-rivalry literatures and offer further support to the U-inverted influence of multimarket contact on entry. Given the coordination assumption implicit in the theory and the possible presence of unobservable variables, we also offer a method to cope with the common-actor problem. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.},
note = {78},
pages = {477-499},
number = {5},
volume = {27},
journal = {Strategic Management Journal},
title = {Multipoint competition, strategic similarity and entry into geographic markets},
author = {Fuentelsaz , L. and Gomez , J.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2006},
keywords = {Labour Force Survey (LFS); New Earnings Survey (NES); Annual Survey of
Hours and Earnings (ASHE); regional spatial; geographical; wage
differentials},
abstract = {The Labour Force Survey (LFS) and the New Earnings Survey (NES) are the most widely used data sets for analysing pay in Britain. The paper details the key differences between the two and assesses the impact of their use for studying geographical wage differences. The pattern observed is sensitive to the differences in data sets, to differences in the sample populations, the questions asked about pay and working hours, and how hourly pay is measured. Recommendations are made on which data set should be used for what purposes as well as comments on the expected improvements that will result from the introduction of the Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings (ASHE).},
note = {Ma, Ada H. Y. Roberts, Elizabeth Elliott, Robert F. Bell, David Scott, Anthony
34},
pages = {645-665},
number = {6},
volume = {40},
journal = {Regional Studies},
title = {Comparing the New Earnings Survey (NES) and the Labour Force Survey (LFS): An analysis of the differences between the data sets and their implications for the pattern of geographical pay in the UK},
author = {Ma , A. H. Y. and Roberts , E. and Elliott , R. F. and Bell , D. and Scott , A.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2006},
keywords = {financial exclusion; social exclusion; branch closure; regional banking
IMPERFECT INFORMATION; FINANCIAL EXCLUSION; LOS-ANGELES; MARKETS;
CREDIT; SECTOR; GEOGRAPHIES; EFFICIENCY; POLICY},
abstract = {The paper examines the argument that the concentration of banking in large urban areas could result in social exclusion. There are those who fear that customers living in peripheral regions will suffer discrimination, and businesses will decline. An alternative view is that the geographical proximity of banks in an age of electronic communication is not needed. These conflicting views are examined in the context of the literature on statistical discrimination. It is concluded that it would be unwise to write off the importance of geography in the location of financial services.},
note = {72},
pages = {415-428},
number = {4},
volume = {40},
journal = {Regional Studies},
title = {Regional variation in banking services and social exclusion},
author = {Chakravarty , S. P.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2006},
note = {3},
pages = {428-429},
number = {3},
volume = {40},
journal = {Regional Studies},
title = {Political ecology: An integrative approach to geography and environment-development studies},
author = {Magee , D.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2006},
keywords = {acquisition; serial entrepreneurs; business angels; foreign direct
investment (FDI); clusters; regional development
EXTERNAL TAKEOVERS; UNITED-KINGDOM; COMPANIES; PORTFOLIO; PERFORMANCE;
ENTERPRISES; GEOGRAPHY/; LOCATION; CLOSURES; INDUSTRY},
abstract = {After the exit: acquisitions, entrepreneurial recycling and regional economic development, Regional Studies 40, 55-73. Most studies of the impact of mergers and acquisitions suggest they have a detrimental impact on economic development in peripheral regions over the longer-term. However, such assessments fail to consider the post-acquisition behaviour of the cashed-out entrepreneurs. It is argued here that acquisition triggers a process of 'entrepreneurial recycling' in which the entrepreneurs use their newly acquired wealth, allied to the experience they have accumulated, to engage in other entrepreneurial activities, notably starting new business ventures and investing in other businesses as business angels or venture capitalists. Case studies of five Scottish technology-based firms that were acquired by non-UK companies illustrate this process. When entrepreneurial recycling is taken into account, the overall impact of acquisition on regional economic development may be considerably more positive than the literature has suggested. Moreover, at a time when 'rustbelt' regions, such as Scotland, are becoming less competitive as locations for foreign direct investment, the acquisition of locally owned knowledge-based companies remains a way in which they can continue to attract such investment. The paper concludes with a research agenda for future studies of the 'harvest event'.},
note = {100},
pages = {55-73},
number = {1},
volume = {40},
journal = {Regional Studies},
title = {After the exit: Acquisitions, entrepreneurial recycling and regional economic development},
author = {Mason , C. M. and Harrison , R. T.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2006},
keywords = {regional clusters; development paths; information economy; Germany
INDUSTRIAL; INNOVATION; AGGLOMERATION; GEOGRAPHY; SYSTEMS; MILIEU},
abstract = {In Germany, similar to other countries, enterprises that belong to the information economy (IE) tend to concentrate in a few regions. The paper takes a closer look at the reasons and driving forces for regional clustering within the IE. It is based on the analysis of three German IE clusters: Hamburg, Dresden and the Technology Region Karlsruhe. The analysis follows an explorative, actor-oriented approach using a mixture of qualitative and quantitative empirical methods. The paper concentrates on selected aspects of clustering, questioning the relevance of different theoretical concepts for regional clusters within the IE. It confirms that regional clusters rely on sectoral and regional factors that shape specific regional development paths.},
note = {41},
pages = {409-422},
number = {3},
volume = {40},
journal = {Regional Studies},
title = {Regional clusters of the information economy in Germany},
author = {Matuschewski , A.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2006},
keywords = {regional convergence; unemployment; spatial correlation; non-parametric
estimation
ECONOMIC-GROWTH; CONVERGENCE; UNION; UNEMPLOYMENT; COUNTRIES; CLUSTERS;
OUTPUT; TESTS; TIME; GDP},
abstract = {Income and employment disparities across European regions: the role of national and spatial factors, Regional Studies 40, 75-91. The paper analyses the impact of trends in employment rates on income convergence across European regions looking at the evolution of entire distributions. Between 1988 and 1996, European regions have been characterized by a very slow process of income convergence across countries and by a lack of income convergence within countries. While trends in labour productivity have contributed to income convergence, trends in employment rates have had a diverging impact. Polarization in employment rates also appears to be the result of national factors and of the negative performance of Objective 1 regions more than the consequence of the emergence of geographical clusters that go beyond national borders.},
note = {36},
pages = {75-91},
number = {1},
volume = {40},
journal = {Regional Studies},
title = {Income and employment disparities across European regions: The role of national and spatial factors},
author = {Meliciani , V.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2006},
keywords = {local industrial clusters; industry study; spatial agglomeration;
empirical methodology
GEOGRAPHIC CONCENTRATION; BADEN-WURTTEMBERG; INNOVATION; DISTRICTS;
MUNICH},
abstract = {This paper presents a method that allows local industrial clusters to be identified and applies this method to Germany. The method is applied to all three-digit manufacturing industries in Germany. The results are used in two ways. First, they provide some information about which industries are clustering, and which are not. Second, a complete list of all local clusters that existed in Germany in 2001 and are identified by this method is given. The spatial distribution of these local clusters in Germany is discussed in the light of other studies on Germany.},
note = {Brenner, Thomas
29},
pages = {991-1004},
number = {9},
volume = {40},
journal = {Regional Studies},
title = {Identification of local industrial clusters in Germany},
author = {Brenner , T.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2006},
keywords = {sustainable development; spatial approach; equity; efficacy
ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT; ENVIRONMENTAL-POLICY; GOVERNANCE; PROXIMITY;
DIMENSION; ECONOMY; TRADE; CITY},
abstract = {The present paper considers the two challenges of equity and efficacy, and it tries to specify the variables that influence each of them in a spatial approach. In order to do this, it draws on the existing literature, highlighting the differences in treatment depending on the approach, and also stressing the weaknesses. Overall, it is believed that the spatial dimension exacerbates the contradictions that arise from the implementation of sustainable development, in particular the contradictions that are likely to appear between a logic of sustainability and a logic of competitiveness. The paper concludes by examining the question of governance.},
note = {Zuindeau, Bertrand
59},
pages = {459-470},
number = {5},
volume = {40},
journal = {Regional Studies},
title = {Spatial approach to sustainable development: Challenges of equity and efficacy},
author = {Zuindeau , B.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2006},
note = {4},
pages = {432-433},
number = {4},
volume = {40},
journal = {Regional Studies},
title = {Proximity, distance and diversity: Issues on economic interaction and local development},
author = {Cole , A. and Frederiksen , L.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2006},
keywords = {knowledge base; probabilistic entropy; services; medium and high-tech;
triple helix
RESEARCH-AND-DEVELOPMENT; INDUSTRY-GOVERNMENT RELATIONS; INNOVATION;
UNIVERSITY; COOPERATION; TAXONOMY; DYNAMICS; SCIENCE},
abstract = {Can the knowledge base of an economy be measured? In this study, we combine the perspective of regional economics on the interrelationships among technology, organization, and territory with the triple-helix model, and offer the mutual information in three dimensions as an indicator of the configuration. When this probabilistic entropy is negative, the configuration reduces the uncertainty that prevails at the systems level. Data about more than a million Dutch companies are used for testing the indicator. The data contain postal codes (geography), sector codes (proxy for technology), and firm sizes in terms of number of employees (proxy for organization). The configurations are mapped at three levels: national (NUTS-1), provincial (NUTS-2), and regional (NUTS-3). The levels are cross-tabled with the knowledge-intensive sectors and services. The results suggest that medium-tech sectors contribute to the knowledge base of an economy more than high-tech ones. Knowledge-intensive services have an uncoupling effect, but less so at the high-tech end of these services. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.},
note = {83},
pages = {181-199},
number = {2},
volume = {35},
journal = {Research Policy},
title = {Measuring the knowledge base of an economy in terms of triple-helix relations among 'technology, organization, and territory'},
author = {Leydesdorff , L. and Dolfsma , W. and Van der Panne , G.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2006},
note = {Fuentelsaz, L. Gomez, J.
1},
pages = {1233-1233},
number = {12},
volume = {27},
journal = {Strategic Management Journal},
title = {Multipoint competition, strategic similarity and entry into geographic markets (vol 27, pg 477, 2006)},
author = {Fuentelsaz , L. and Gomez , J.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2006},
keywords = {specialization; economic activity; regions; European Union
ECONOMIC-GEOGRAPHY; CONVERGENCE; GROWTH; SPACE; INEQUALITIES; DYNAMICS;
FALL; RISE; GDP},
abstract = {This paper examines productive specialization in the regions of the European Union between 1977 and 1999 using the information provided by a set of methodological instruments that allow one to overcome several of the limitations of the conventional approach used in this type of analysis. The results obtained reveal a process of convergence in regional productive structures during the 23 years considered. This is due to the behaviour of regions with high levels of specialization at the start of the period whose productive structures have tended to shift towards the European average over time. The analysis carried out also shows the major role played by regional size, market access and geographical location in explaining specialization in the European context.},
note = {Ezcurra, Roberto Pascual, Pedro Rapun, Manuel
57},
pages = {601-616},
number = {6},
volume = {40},
journal = {Regional Studies},
title = {Regional specialization in the European Union},
author = {Ezcurra , R. and Pascual , P. and Rapun , M.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2006},
note = {1},
pages = {426-428},
number = {3},
volume = {40},
journal = {Regional Studies},
title = {The geography of urban transportation},
author = {Gopakumar , G.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2006},
note = {Griffin, Amy L.
1},
pages = {969-970},
number = {8},
volume = {40},
journal = {Regional Studies},
title = {The use of maps in the exploration of geographic data},
author = {Griffin , A. L.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2006},
keywords = {knowledge spillovers; regional growth; research and development;
innovation; diffusion of innovations
R-AND-D; FOREIGN DIRECT-INVESTMENT; ECONOMIC-GROWTH;
INDUSTRIAL-DEVELOPMENT; ABSORPTIVE-CAPACITY; TECHNOLOGICAL LEADERSHIP;
SPATIAL ECONOMETRICS; PRODUCTIVITY GROWTH; MANUFACTURING FIRMS;
INCREASING RETURNS},
abstract = {Modern (endogenous) growth theory tells us that knowledge is crucial for the sustained growth of high-income economies. Against this background, the paper provides a survey of theoretical and empirical findings highlighting the question of how geographically limited knowledge diffusion can help to explain clusters of regions with persistently different levels of growth. It discusses this topic in two steps. First, the theoretical concept of knowledge spillovers is outlined by discussing the different types of knowledge, the spatial dimension of knowledge spillovers, and the geographical mechanisms and structural conditions of knowledge diffusion. Second, it analyses the empirical evidence concerning the theoretical propositions.},
note = {177},
pages = {375-395},
number = {3},
volume = {40},
journal = {Regional Studies},
title = {What do we know about geographical knowledge spillovers and regional growth?: A survey of the literature},
author = {Doring , T. and Schnellenbach , J.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2006},
keywords = {local food; production; marketing; index of food relocalization;
England and Wales
REGIONAL SPECIALITY FOOD; RURAL-DEVELOPMENT; EUROPEAN-UNION; DRINK
PRODUCTS; QUALITY; NETWORKS; CULTURE; SCHEME},
abstract = {Despite much interest in the relocalization of the food supply chain in England and Wales, it is unclear whether local food systems are more developed in some areas than others. The aim is to identify current areas of local food activity in England and Wales through the application of an Index of Food Relocalization. The Index is developed by using indicators related to the production and marketing of local food products and results suggest a complex geography associated with such activities.},
note = {41},
pages = {289-301},
number = {3},
volume = {40},
journal = {Regional Studies},
title = {Distribution of local food activity in England and Wales: An index of food relocalization},
author = {Hein , J. R. and Ilberyand , B. and Kneafsey , M.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2006},
keywords = {regional innovation system
RESEARCH-AND-DEVELOPMENT; NATIONAL SYSTEMS; MULTINATIONAL-CORPORATIONS;
TECHNOLOGICAL LEADERSHIP; INDUSTRIAL DISTRICTS; SURVEY ERIS;
GLOBALIZATION; PROXIMITY; PERSPECTIVE; FIRMS},
abstract = {Our survey of 1600 manufacturing firms in Singapore, Penang (Malaysia) and Bangkok shows that the breadth and efficiency of innovative activities still lag considerably behind those found in 11 European regions. Cooperations are virtually indispensable for corporate innovation processes in the region. Their strong orientation towards headquarters or research and development centres of multinational corporations and lead users in technologically advanced countries yields a discontinuous territorial pattern of linkages in which firms 'leapfrog' neighbouring South East Asian countries (ASEAN), contrasting sharply with the distance-decay pattern found in Europe. Further research should employ multidimensional concepts of space to accommodate the territorial, techno-economic, organizational, relational and temporal dimensions of innovation networks.},
note = {Revilla Diez, Javier Kiese, Matthias
134},
pages = {1005-1023},
number = {9},
volume = {40},
journal = {Regional Studies},
title = {Scaling innovation in South East Asia: Empirical evidence from Singapore, Penang (Malaysia) and Bangkok},
author = {Diez , J. R. and Kiese , M.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2006},
keywords = {industrial clusters; firm location; innovation processes; technological
regimes; cluster classification
ECONOMIC-GEOGRAPHY; INNOVATION; LOCATION; AGGLOMERATION; CITIES;
GROWTH; INFORMATION; PERSPECTIVE; PERFORMANCE; DISTRICTS},
abstract = {In this paper, we investigate the relationship between location patterns, innovation processes and industrial clusters. In order to do this we extend a transactions costs-based classification into a knowledge-based taxonomy of clusters, along the lines suggested by a critical revision of the main assumptions underlying most of the existing literature on spatial clusters. Our arguments show that the transactions costs approach and the innovation and technological regimes framework are broadly consistent, and that real insights into the microfoundations, nature, and evolution of clusters can be provided by these classification systems. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.},
note = {Iammarino, Simona McCann, Philip
132},
pages = {1018-1036},
number = {7},
volume = {35},
journal = {Research Policy},
title = {The structure and evolution of industrial clusters: Transactions, technology and knowledge spillovers},
author = {Iammarino , S. and McCann , P.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2006},
keywords = {regional studies; economic geography; regulation approach;
institutional approaches; cognitive approaches
MOTOR SPORT VALLEY; ECONOMIC-GEOGRAPHY; INNOVATION; KNOWLEDGE; MARKETS;
ACCUMULATION; INSTITUTIONS; PROXIMITY; NETWORKS; CLUSTERS},
abstract = {The field of regional studies is characterized by an intense flow of ideas and concepts, accompanying what can be described as a restless shifting of perspectives and approaches. Most of the inspiration for this dynamics is drawn from other disciplinary fields. Yet, the importation and translation of 'external' ideas is often criticized for resulting in rather haphazard and fuzzy conceptualizations. Moreover, rather than carefully assessing new ideas and insights in the context of ongoing debates on regional development, there is a tendency to sidetrack existing lines of debate and call for new 'turns' and 'perspectives'. Without playing down the importance of conceptual innovation, the paper calls for a stronger appreciation of our conceptual inheritance. Taking the genealogy of a dominant line of thinking in the field, the 'Territorial Innovation Models', as a starting point, the paper discusses how one can advance the debate by using both 'old' and 'new' ( internal and external) ideas regarding three core analytical levels in regional studies: micro, meso and macro. Recent ideas on relationality, in particular, are considered helpful in reassessing as well as refining the value of 'older' structuralist - institutionalist macroapproaches, and in situating the contribution from more recent debates on the ( micro) role of cognition and knowledge. Finally, a call is made for a careful absorption of sociological work to take into account the broader ( meso) institutional economic environment in which regions operate.},
note = {66},
pages = {385-399},
number = {4},
volume = {40},
journal = {Regional Studies},
title = {Learning from conceptual flow in regional studies: Framing present debates, unbracketing past debates},
author = {Lagendijk , A.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2006},
keywords = {breakthrough innovations; technological space; geographic origin;
biotechnology; patents
FOREIGN DIRECT-INVESTMENT; RESEARCH-AND-DEVELOPMENT;
ABSORPTIVE-CAPACITY; UNITED-STATES; DEVELOPMENT LABORATORIES; PRODUCT
INNOVATION; EMPIRICAL-ANALYSIS; ESTABLISHED FIRMS; PATENT CITATIONS;
LOCAL SEARCH},
abstract = {How are breakthrough innovations created? Our study suggests that the type of external knowledge sourced determines the likelihood of creation of breakthrough innovation. We characterize the external knowledge utilized on two dimensions: its technological space and geographic origin. We draw on the concepts of local search and national innovation systems to identify critical knowledge inputs. We hypothesize that external knowledge characterized by technological distance or proximity and the national or international context can have a differential impact on breakthrough innovation. This is due to the contradictory implications of its value created by distance and to absorptive capacity limitations in effectively utilizing knowledge from a different context. To test our hypotheses we use patent data from the U.S. biotechnology industry. Our findings suggest that technologically distant knowledge of national origin has a curvilinear effect and technologically proximate knowledge of international origin has a positive effect on breakthrough innovation. However, simultaneous exploration along technologically and geographic dimensions is not useful to generating breakthrough innovation; technologically distant knowledge of international origin does not have a significant impact. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.},
note = {91},
pages = {369-388},
number = {4},
volume = {27},
journal = {Strategic Management Journal},
title = {Breakthrough innovations in the US biotechnology industry: The effects of technological space and geographic origin},
author = {Phene , A. and Fladmoe-Lindquist , K. and Marsh , L.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2006},
note = {Irazabal, Clara
2},
pages = {806-807},
number = {7},
volume = {40},
journal = {Regional Studies},
title = {Seductions of place: Geographical perspectives on globalization and touristed landscapes},
author = {Irazabal , C.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2006},
keywords = {regional entrepreneurship dynamics; start-up activities; new business
success; determinants; Germany
ORGANIZATIONAL MORTALITY; REGIMES; ECOLOGY; ABILITY; GROWTH; ENTRY;
FIRMS},
abstract = {The importance of entrepreneurship for the development of national and regional economies is widely recognized. Although politicians in Germany are aware of entrepreneurship, their practices cannot rely on a generally accepted theory of entrepreneurship. The paper develops a holistic conceptualization of regional entrepreneurship dynamics and investigates empirically determinants of start-up activities and new business success in selected German regions. It uses two primary data sets explicitly designed to analyse regional entrepreneurship dynamics in contemporary Germany. The research project 'Regional Entrepreneurship Monitor' focuses on determinants of start-up activities in the pre-entry phase of entrepreneurial processes, while the 'New Firm Survey' examines factors influencing post-entry firm success. The paper suggests holistic approaches in entrepreneurship research are necessary, because entrepreneur-associated factors, characteristics of the newly founded firm and the geographical environment influence entrepreneurial processes. These determinants can have direct or indirect influences on entrepreneurial processes. The results suggest that politicians and policy-makers need to pay special attention to entrepreneurial attitudes and behaviours if they wish to boost regional entrepreneurship dynamics in Germany.},
note = {57},
pages = {365-384},
number = {4},
volume = {40},
journal = {Regional Studies},
title = {Determinants of regional entrepreneurship dynamics in contemporary Germany: A conceptual and empirical analysis},
author = {Tamasy , C.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2006},
keywords = {regional specialization; geographical concentration; economic
integration; employment growth; Germany
MANUFACTURING-INDUSTRIES; GEOGRAPHIC CONCENTRATION; CITIES},
abstract = {This paper describes the development of regional specialization and geographical concentration in Germany from 1993 to 2001. It finds compelling evidence neither for a specialization process of German regions, nor for a concentration process of industries. This conclusion holds by and large for all levels of territorial aggregation.},
note = {Suedekum, Jens
32},
pages = {861-873},
number = {8},
volume = {40},
journal = {Regional Studies},
title = {Concentration and specialization trends in Germany since re-unification},
author = {Suedekum , J.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2006},
keywords = {venture capitals; startup; industry life cycled; high-tech cluster;
emergence
INITIAL PUBLIC OFFERINGS; INNOVATION; FIRMS; COMPETITION; COMPANIES},
abstract = {This paper presents an industry life cycle model of venture capital (VC) and associated startup-intensive high-tech clusters based on the Israeli experience of the last 35 years. Throughout, VC is considered as a new industry, which, when successful, traverses five phases: background conditions, pre-emergence, emergence, restructuring and consolidation. Each phase comprises a number of events and processes, including policy ones. A central process is VC emergence-a cumulative, self-reinforcing process involving a number of interrelated sub-processes. A central sub-process in the Israeli case was VC-startup co-evolution, which was the critical link between the VC emergence and the transformation of the high-tech cluster into a startup-intensive configuration. Our analysis suggests that, provided appropriate background conditions prevail, VC could be central vector in the transformation of existing high-tech clusters. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.},
note = {Avnimelech, Gil Teubal, Morris
67},
pages = {1477-1498},
number = {10},
volume = {35},
journal = {Research Policy},
title = {Creating venture capital industries that co-evolve with high tech: Insights from an extended industry life cycle perspective of the Israeli experience},
author = {Avnimelech , G. and Teubal , M.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2006},
note = {Allen, Ralph K., Jr.
1},
pages = {691-691},
number = {6},
volume = {40},
journal = {Regional Studies},
title = {Geography and history: Bridging the divide},
author = {Allen , R. K.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2006},
keywords = {organizational learning; knowledge networks; clusters; geography of
innovation; knowledge management
COMPETITIVENESS; REGION},
abstract = {The aim of the paper is to give empirically based insights into forms and mechanisms of knowledge management and learning within clusters. Taking the case of five specific clusters from the Austrian province of Styria, the paper looks at differences in their learning behaviour. Based on theories of ( organizational) learning, the paper investigates learning systems and their particular forms at cluster level, differentiating especially between informal and participative learning. By means of a survey and in-depth interviews with firms of the clusters, different patterns of learning according to the specific technology and product orientation of the clusters and their different needs for specific forms of knowledge can be found. Each cluster shows distinct patterns of learning and uses different sources of knowledge. Also, patterns of substitution between these sources can be revealed. The prevalence of ongoing learning processes indicates the importance of institutional arrangements such as clusters for the generation of knowledge.},
note = {Steiner, Michael Hartmann, Christian
46},
pages = {493-506},
number = {5},
volume = {40},
journal = {Regional Studies},
title = {Organizational learning in clusters: A case study on material and immaterial dimensions of cooperation},
author = {Steiner , M. and Hartmann , C.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2006},
keywords = {research; university-industry collaboration; proximity; networks;
microelectronics
NETWORKS; PATENTS},
abstract = {In the first part of the paper we discuss the pattern of research in microelectronics, illustrating the reasons why, in order to achieve distinguished scientific performance, universities need to collaborate with industry, and in particular academic researchers need to interact with industrial ones by face-to-face knowledge exchanges. In the second part, using patent data integrated with information collected through interviews, we measure the extent and intensity of the ties of academic with industrial researchers, and apply social network analysis to reconstruct the network of collaborations. The picture that emerges (from this Italian case) is fully consistent with the specific research pattern. Collaboration is based on teams of researchers from the two spheres, and strong connections are associated with high scientific performance. Moreover, border-crossing collaborations tend to be driven by cognitive proximity and personal relationships. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.},
note = {Balconi, Margherita Laboranti, Andrea
31},
pages = {1616-1630},
number = {10},
volume = {35},
journal = {Research Policy},
title = {University-industry interactions in applied research: The case of microelectronics},
author = {Balconi , M. and Laboranti , A.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2006},
keywords = {academic spin-offs; performance; Oxfordshire
TECHNOLOGY-TRANSFER; INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY; CREATION; POLICY; FIRMS},
abstract = {The paper reports on a recent study, which uses various indicators to provide an insight on the performance of spin-off companies from the public sector research base in Oxfordshire (UK). The study builds upon the other studies and fills a gap in the field by gathering empirical information on the performance of technology-based spin-off companies. While the main geographical focus is the county of Oxfordshire, UK, the findings will also be of value for other researchers and institutions with an interest in assessing the performance of spin-off firms. The evidence shows that the number of spin-offs in Oxfordshire has increased rapidly over recent years, as the result of evolving national policy and the entrepreneurial culture of the universities and laboratories. However, the academics and scientists in Oxfordshire's institutions were already entrepreneurial in the 1950s, less so in the 1960s, but increasingly in the 1970s and 1980s, particularly in Oxford University, which is by far the largest generator of spin-offs in the region. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.},
note = {Smith, H. Lawton Ho, K.
50},
pages = {1554-1568},
number = {10},
volume = {35},
journal = {Research Policy},
title = {Measuring the performance of Oxford University, Oxford Brookes University and the government laboratories' spin-off companies},
author = {Smith , H. L. and Ho , K.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2006},
keywords = {diffusion; information; knowledge; social networks; competitive
advantage
SOCIAL NETWORKS; EMPIRICAL-TEST; HYBRID CORN; DIFFUSION; TECHNOLOGY;
INNOVATION; IMITATION; FIRM; SPILLOVERS; MODELS},
abstract = {Because knowledge plays an important role in the creation of wealth, economic actors often wish to skew the flow of knowledge in their favor. We ask, when will an actor socially close to the source of some knowledge have the greatest advantage over distant actors in receiving and building on the knowledge? Marrying a social network perspective with a view of knowledge transfer as a search process, we argue that the value of social proximity to the knowledge source depends crucially on the nature of the knowledge at hand. Simple knowledge diffuses equally to close and distant actors because distant recipients with poor connections to the source of the knowledge can compensate for their limited access by means of unaided local search. Complex knowledge resists diffusion even within the social circles in which it originated. With knowledge of moderate complexity, however, high-fidelity transmission along social networks combined with local search allows socially proximate recipients to receive and extend knowledge generated elsewhere, while interdependencies stymie more distant recipients who rely heavily on unaided search. To test this hypothesis, we examine patent data and compare citation rates across proximate and distant actors on three dimensions: (1) the inventor collaboration network; (2) firm membership; and (3) geography. We find robust support for the proposition that socially proximate actors have the greatest advantage over distant actors for knowledge of moderate complexity. We discuss the implications of our findings for the distribution of intra-industry profits, the geographic agglomeration of industries, the design of social networks within firms, and the modularization of technologies. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.},
note = {Sorenson, Olav Rivkin, Jan W. Fleming, Lee
102},
pages = {994-1017},
number = {7},
volume = {35},
journal = {Research Policy},
title = {Complexity, networks and knowledge flow},
author = {Sorenson , O. and Rivkin , J. W. and Fleming , L.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2006},
keywords = {GLOBAL VIRTUAL TEAMS; DEMOGRAPHIC FAULTLINES; DISTRIBUTED TEAMS;
CONFLICT; DYNAMICS; PERFORMANCE; DIVERSITY; TRUST; INFORMATION;
KNOWLEDGE},
abstract = {We theorize that in geographically dispersed teams, members' geographic locations are likely to activate "faultlines" (hypothetical dividing lines that split a group into subgroups) that impair team functioning. In a study of 45 teams comprised of graduate students from 14 schools in ten countries, we found that geographic faultlines heightened conflict and reduced trust. These faultlines were stronger when a team was divided into two equally sized subgroups of colocated members and when these subgroups were homogeneous in nationality.},
note = {Polzer, Jeffrey T. Crisp, C. Brad Jarvenpaa, Sirkka L. Kim, Jerry W.
50},
pages = {679-692},
number = {4},
volume = {49},
journal = {Academy of Management Journal},
title = {Extending the faultline model to geographically dispersed teams: How colocated subgroups can impair group functioning},
author = {Polzer , J. T. and Crisp , C. B. and Jarvenpaa , S. L. and Kim , J. W.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2006},
keywords = {income distribution; imputed rents; subgroup decomposition
FACTOR COMPONENTS; POVERTY},
abstract = {The purpose of this study is to examine the regional differences in the effect of home ownership on income distribution in urban Turkey. The earlier finding that income distribution improves with the inclusion of imputed rents from owner-occupied housing has raised the question about whether this pattern is unique to a small number of densely populated areas where squatting is more widespread or whether it is more of a widely observed phenomenon. A decomposition analysis-based on the Atkinson index-that treats Turkey's geographical regions ( and, alternatively, provinces) as the subgroups that make up the whole population reveals that the main contributors to the overall improvement are the regions in which squatting is more prevalent.},
note = {Dayioglu, Meltem Baslevent, Cem
27},
pages = {889-905},
number = {8},
volume = {40},
journal = {Regional Studies},
title = {Imputed rents and regional income inequality in Turkey: A subgroup decomposition of the Atkinson index},
author = {Dayioglu , M. and Baslevent , C.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2006},
note = {1},
pages = {425-426},
number = {3},
volume = {40},
journal = {Regional Studies},
title = {The urban geography reader},
author = {Ye , X. Y.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2006},
keywords = {regional specialization; business cycles; economic integration; risk
sharing; spatial econometrics
SPATIAL DEPENDENCE; UNCERTAINTY; TESTS; TRADE},
abstract = {This paper examines the hypothesis that there is an inverse relationship between specialization in production and the symmetry of cyclical fluctuations in the regions of Europe. In so doing, an index of asymmetries for the cyclical fluctuations of per capita gross domestic product (GDP) in the regions of Europe is constructed and various geographical patterns are reported. From the sample, the Mediterranean regions show the highest levels of asymmetry. In addition, an econometric analysis of the determinants of the asymmetries in regional fluctuations is carried out. The results show the significance of specialization in production as a determinant of asymmetries in the regions and the importance of the geographical location of a region in accounting for its level of asymmetry. Furthermore, regions whose neighbours show highs levels of asymmetry tend to show similarly high levels of asymmetry.},
note = {Pons-Novell, Jordi Tirado-Fabregat, Daniel A.
23},
pages = {695-706},
number = {7},
volume = {40},
journal = {Regional Studies},
title = {Specialization and asymmetries in macroeconomic fluctuations: Evidence for the European regions},
author = {Pons-Novell , J. and Tirado-Fabregat , D. A.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2006},
keywords = {mergers; acquisitions; mergers and acquisitions (M&As); monitoring;
agglomeration
KNOWLEDGE SPILLOVERS; HORIZONTAL MERGER; PATENT CITATIONS;
UNITED-STATES; LOCALIZATION; EQUILIBRIUM; INFORMATION; INNOVATION},
abstract = {This paper explores domestic mergers and acquisitions (M&As) from the regional perspective. The Finnish evidence reveals that geographical closeness is a characteristic of great importance for domestic M&As. Thus, a great number of M&As occur within narrowly defined regions. Interestingly, domestic M&As reinforce the core-periphery dimension. The results from the matched firm-level data show that larger companies can overcome geographical boundaries more easily and domestic M&As are more likely to occur in regions that contain a great number of companies. In addition, the results reveal that a strong ability by an acquiring company to monitor the target ( measured by the knowledge embodied in human capital or in research and development stock) can support M&As that occur across distant locations.},
note = {Bockerman, Petri Lehto, Eero
35},
pages = {847-860},
number = {8},
volume = {40},
journal = {Regional Studies},
title = {Geography of domestic mergers and acquisitions (M&As): Evidence from matched firm-level data},
author = {Bockerman , P. and Lehto , E.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2006},
keywords = {TOP MANAGEMENT; BOARD COMPOSITION; DISTRESSED FIRMS; CEO SUCCESSION;
ORGANIZATIONAL LEGITIMACY; AUDIT COMMITTEE; UPPER ECHELONS; FAILING
FIRMS; PERFORMANCE; GOVERNANCE},
abstract = {Using event history analysis, we found that CEOs and CFOs of firms filing a material financial restatement were more than twice as likely to exit their firms as their counterparts in a matched sample. Directors and audit committee members were approximately 70 percent more likely to exit in restatement firms. The magnitude, ubiquity, and temporal proximity of executive and director turnover following a restatement indicate that such events pose a serious threat to organizational legitimacy, independent of firm performance. Restatements therefore provide an important and unique context for studying the accountability of strategic leaders for organizational crises.},
note = {Arthaud-Day, Marne L. Certo, S. Trevis Dalton, Catherine M. Dalton, Dan R.
86},
pages = {1119-1136},
number = {6},
volume = {49},
journal = {Academy of Management Journal},
title = {A changing of the guard: Executive and director turnover following corporate financial restatements},
author = {Arthaud-Day , M. L. and Certo , S. T. and Dalton , C. M. and Dalton , D. R.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2005},
keywords = {devolution; economic development; state theory; 'Filling in'; UK
REGIONAL-DEVELOPMENT; ENGLISH QUESTION; GOVERNANCE; GLOBALIZATION;
POLITICS; ENGLAND; SPACE; BRITAIN; NATION; POLICY},
abstract = {This paper is concerned with the new institutional geographies of devolution and state restructuring, particularly in the UK. As part of perhaps the biggest change to the UK state since the Acts of Union, the Labour Party has established the Scottish Parliament, elected Assemblies for Wales, Northern Ireland, and London, and Regional Development Agencies within England's regions. The paper offers a conceptual framework through which to explore these new institutional geographies. It extends Jessop's strategic-relational approach to the state by arguing that it is no longer enough simply to refer to a multivariate 'hollowing out' of the nation state in an era of economic and political restructuring. The paper suggests that devolution represents a geographically uneven 'filling-in' of the state's institutional and scalar matrix, which is leading to an increasingly complex spatial division of the state. This appears to be creating uneven capacities to act and the implications of this are discussed.},
note = {104},
pages = {421-436},
number = {4},
volume = {39},
journal = {Regional Studies},
title = {Devolution, constitutional change and economic development: Explaining and understanding the new institutional Geographies of the British state},
author = {Goodwin , M. and Jones , M. and Jones , R.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2005},
keywords = {innovation; regions; innovation policy; regional policy; regional
development
RESEARCH-AND-DEVELOPMENT; TECHNOLOGICAL-CHANGE; UNITED-STATES; GROWTH;
CLUSTERS; POLICY; KNOWLEDGE; GEOGRAPHY; INSTITUTIONS; COOPERATION},
abstract = {This paper investigates the issue of innovation policy within a regional context. It is presented that the perspective one takes is important both in how one interprets the processes and relationships involved, but also in the way one identifies barriers and problems in policy formation and how one resolves them. The paper explores a number of contrasting perspectives in relation to innovation policy and the regions and seeks to highlight the implications of this both for policy, but also in the development of our conceptual understanding about innovation and geography. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.},
note = {95},
pages = {1220-1234},
number = {8},
volume = {34},
journal = {Research Policy},
title = {Innovation and regional economic development: A matter of perspective?},
author = {Howells , J.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2005},
note = {1},
pages = {1277-1278},
number = {9},
volume = {39},
journal = {Regional Studies},
title = {Is geography destiny? Lessons from Latin America},
author = {Uitto , J.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2005},
keywords = {steel; automotive; innovation; knowledge; networks},
abstract = {The key motivation behind innovation in the steel industry has been the revolution in vehicle manufacturing, as automotive steel represents the largest source of revenue for integrated mills. The paper examines in a comparative context the innovative practices of North America's most profitable integrated automotive steel producer, Dofasco Inc. It seeks to elucidate conclusions from previous work on knowledge derived from participation in global learning networks. The authors claim that Dofasco is a commercialization-stage innovator. It adds value to a product or process as it meets the market, but does not significantly contribute to fundamental and applied scientific research in automotive steel production. The geographic sphere in which most of Dofasco's customer-oriented innovation occurs is in a regional system of innovation, specifically the automotive parts and assembly hub of south-western Ontario and Michigan.},
note = {23},
pages = {161-170},
number = {2},
volume = {39},
journal = {Regional Studies},
title = {Knowledge and innovation in the interface between the steel and automotive industries: The case of Dofasco},
author = {Warrian , P. and Mulhern , C.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2005},
keywords = {public expenditure; regional accounts; regional policy
ENGLISH LOCAL-AUTHORITIES; PUBLIC-EXPENDITURE; MILITARY INDUSTRY;
BRITAIN; GEOGRAPHY},
note = {26},
pages = {805-813},
number = {6},
volume = {39},
journal = {Regional Studies},
title = {Government output and expenditure in UK regions and sub-regions: An analysis of the new experimental accounts data},
author = {Gripaios , P. and Bishop , P.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2005},
keywords = {clusters; absorptive capacity; knowledge communities; technological
gatekeepers
R-AND-D; ABSORPTIVE-CAPACITY; KNOWLEDGE; POLICY; FIRMS; COOPERATION;
COMMUNITIES; SPILLOVERS; GEOGRAPHY},
abstract = {Most analyses of the relationship between spatial clustering and the technological learning of firms have emphasised the influence of the former on the latter, and have focused on intra-cluster learning as the driver of innovative performance. This paper reverses those perspectives. It examines the influence of individual firms' absorptive capacities on both the functioning of the intra-cluster knowledge system and its interconnection with extra-cluster knowledge. It applies social network analysis to identify different cognitive roles played by cluster firms and the overall structure of the knowledge system of a wine cluster in Chile. The results show that knowledge is not diffused evenly 'in the air', but flows within a core group of firms characterised by advanced absorptive capacities. Firms' different cognitive roles include some-as in the case of technological gatekeepers-that contribute actively to the acquisition, creation and diffusion of knowledge. Others remain cognitively isolated from the cluster, though in some cases strongly linked to extra-cluster knowledge. Possible implications for policy are noted. (c) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.},
note = {62},
pages = {47-68},
number = {1},
volume = {34},
journal = {Research Policy},
title = {The micro-determinants of meso-level learning and innovation: evidence from a Chilean wine cluster},
author = {Giuliani , E. and Bell , M.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2005},
keywords = {underground economy; social capital; deprived neighbourhoods; community
involvement
INFORMAL WORK; TAX EVASION; GEOGRAPHY; CONSUMPTION; EXCHANGE; ECONOMY;
LESSONS; AGENDA; SPACES},
abstract = {Examining two realms of public policy treated as unrelated by academics and policy-makers, namely fostering community engagement (and social capital) and tackling undeclared work, it is here shown that in the UK, these spheres are only unconnected when considering the lives of populations in affluent areas. In deprived areas, where most community engagement occurs on a one-to-one basis and usually involves the exchange of cash for favours, undeclared work and community engagement are conjoined. To conclude, therefore, the paper explores how a 'joined-up' public policy approach could be achieved.},
note = {90},
pages = {1145-1155},
number = {8},
volume = {39},
journal = {Regional Studies},
title = {Fostering community engagement and tackling undeclared work: The case for an evidence-based 'joined-up' public policy approach},
author = {Williams , C. C.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2005},
keywords = {research and development (R&D) spillovers; economic growth; Germany
INNOVATION},
abstract = {The paper is based on recent theoretical writings in growth economics that emphasise the effects of both own research and development efforts and of interregional technology spillovers on regions' productivity. It proposes robust estimation techniques to evaluate the research and development spillovers across West German functional regions between 1976 and 1996. The findings suggest the existence of knowledge spillovers across functional regional boundaries. Moreover, significant spillovers are mainly found among geographically close regions. This finding confirms the hypothesis that proximity matters.},
note = {34},
pages = {143-153},
number = {1},
volume = {39},
journal = {Regional Studies},
title = {Regional geographic research and development spillovers and economic growth: Evidence from West Germany},
author = {Funke , M. and Niebuhr , A.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2005},
keywords = {regional innovation policy; clusters; regional innovation systems; less
favoured regions; innovation barriers
KNOWLEDGE SPILLOVERS; ECONOMIC-GEOGRAPHY; TACIT KNOWLEDGE; THEME ISSUE;
SYSTEMS; PERSPECTIVE; CLUSTERS; LOCATION; EUROPE},
abstract = {Innovation has moved to the foreground in regional policy in the last decade. Concrete policies were shaped by "best practice models" derived from high-tech areas and well performing regions. These are often applied in a similar way across many types of regions. Here an attempt is made to show that there is no "ideal model" for innovation policy as innovation activities differ strongly between central, peripheral and old industrial areas. In this paper we analyse different types of regions with respect to their preconditions for innovation, networking and innovation barriers. Based on this classification different policy options and strategies are developed. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.},
note = {134},
pages = {1203-1219},
number = {8},
volume = {34},
journal = {Research Policy},
title = {One size fits all? Towards a differentiated regional innovation policy approach},
author = {Todlting , F. and Trippl , M.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2005},
keywords = {proximity; innovation; geography; networks; learning
ECONOMIC-GEOGRAPHY; TACIT KNOWLEDGE; EVOLUTIONARY ECONOMICS;
SOCIAL-STRUCTURE; PERSPECTIVE; REGIONS; COMPETITIVENESS; LOCALIZATION;
EMBEDDEDNESS; SPILLOVERS},
abstract = {A key issue in economic geography is to determine the impact of geographical proximity on interactive learning and innovation. We argue that the importance of geographical proximity cannot be assessed in isolation, but should always be examined in relation to other dimensions of proximity that may provide alternative solutions to the problem of coordination. We claim that geographical proximity per se is neither a necessary nor a sufficient condition for learning to take place. Nevertheless, it facilitates interactive learning, most likely by strengthening the other dimensions of proximity. However, proximity may also have negative impacts on innovation due to the problem of lock-in. Accordingly, not only too little, but also too much proximity may be detrimental to interactive learning and innovation. This may be the case for all five dimensions of proximity discussed in the paper, i.e. cognitive, organizational, social, institutional and geographical proximity. Finally, the paper presents a number of mechanisms that offer, by their own, or in combination, solutions to the problems of coordination and lock-in. That is, they enhance effective coordination and control (solving the problem of too little proximity), while they prevent actors to become locked-in through ensuring openness and flexibility (solving the problem of too much proximity).},
note = {72},
pages = {61-74},
number = {1},
volume = {39},
journal = {Regional Studies},
title = {Proximity and innovation: A critical assessment},
author = {Boschma , R. A.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2005},
keywords = {innovation; enterprise; performance; geographical proximity; theory of
the dependence of resources; enquete
RESEARCH-AND-DEVELOPMENT; DEVELOPMENT SPILLOVERS; INTERORGANIZATIONAL
RELATIONSHIPS; INNOVATION SYSTEMS; SECTORAL PATTERNS; NETWORKS;
COOPERATION; KNOWLEDGE; DYNAMICS; BEHAVIOR},
abstract = {Recent theoretical developments in organization science, economic geography and regional economics have emphasized the importance of organizational and geographical proximity for the performance of firms. Empirical evidence on these relationships is scarce, though. The paper asks to what extent firm-specific resources, network activity proximity and industry factors influence innovative and economic outcomes. We used a theoretical synthesis of regional and organizational science, and economic geography to build a research model that enabled us to derive several hypotheses on the influence of different forms of proximity on outcomes, taking other relevant predictors for performance into account. The empirical findings specify the importance of proximity especially for innovative outcomes. We found that in particular intra- and interregional relations with buyers and suppliers are conducive for firm performance. Moreover, innovation strategy (dis)similarity has interesting effects on relative firm performance. Finally, sectoral research and development spillovers influence outcomes in a positive way.},
note = {78},
pages = {89-104},
number = {1},
volume = {39},
journal = {Regional Studies},
title = {Do organizational and spatial proximity impact on firm performance?},
author = {Oerlemans , L. A. G. and Meeus , M. T. H.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2005},
keywords = {MNE motivations; technology; global organization of work;
knowledge-seeking investment; information-intensive industries;
offshoring
RESEARCH-AND-DEVELOPMENT; UNITED-STATES; INTERNATIONAL EXPANSION;
INDUSTRY; KNOWLEDGE; FIRM; DETERMINANTS; INTERNET; GEOGRAPHY; DYNAMICS},
abstract = {Why do firms go abroad when technology makes it possible to do business at a distance? We argue that the cost of distance differentially affects investment motivations across industries. We find support for this hypothesis in a study of U.S. inward and outward FDI. Knowledge seeking and efficiency seeking are the two most important explanations for international activity in information-intensive industries, reinforcing the value of intangible resources in this sphere. In less information-intensive industries, market seeking and the search for low-cost export platforms are the dominant motivations for FDI. An important implication for the current debate on offshoring is that inward FDI flows into the United States occur in high-rather than low-paying industries, and are of the knowledge-seeking variety, while outward flows are driven by the search for efficiency and markets. Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.},
note = {82},
pages = {747-767},
number = {8},
volume = {26},
journal = {Strategic Management Journal},
title = {The persistence of distance? The impact of technology on MNE motivations for foreign investment},
author = {Nachum , L. and Zaheer , S.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2005},
keywords = {local regression; daily travel-to-work; religion; employment
SPATIAL-MISMATCH HYPOTHESIS; EMPLOYMENT; LABOR; SEGREGATION; GENDER},
abstract = {Shuttleworth I. G. and Lloyd C. D. (2005) Analysing average travel-to-work distances in Northern Ireland using the 1991 Census of Population: the effects of locality, social composition, and religion, Regional Studies 39, 909-921. Travel-to-work patterns have important implications for national and international debates about employability and the causes of unemployment. Therefore, using Northern Ireland as an example, this paper explores the factors that shape commuting flows using data from the Census of Population. An analytical framework is developed that explores the use of local regression for this type of socio-economic application. The relative importance of locational and social compositional factors as influences on daily travel-to-work patterns is considered. The paper concludes by suggesting that general regression models may hide local variations in relationships and that locational factors, such as proximity to employment opportunities, can outweigh social characteristics as determinants of commuting.},
note = {30},
pages = {909-921},
number = {7},
volume = {39},
journal = {Regional Studies},
title = {Analysing average travel-to-work distances in Northern Ireland using the 1991 Census of Population: The effects of locality, social composition, and religion},
author = {Shuttleworth , I. G. and Lloyd , C. D.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2005},
keywords = {innovation; cities; agglomeration
PRODUCT CYCLE; FLEXIBLE ACCUMULATION; REGIONAL-DEVELOPMENT; SILICON
VALLEY; ECONOMIES; GEOGRAPHY; NETWORKS; REEMERGENCE; DISTRICTS; LOCATION},
abstract = {Innovation and space: a critical review of the literature. Regional Studies 39, 789-804. This review examines the relationships between innovation and space. It does so by tracing the historical development of innovation theory and its subsequent linking at different stages with spatial and agglomeration theory in order to provide explanations about why the firms, organizations and institutions located in a minority of city-regions generate so much more innovation than those ill the majority of cities. It addresses the key question about why a relative handful of city-regions are home to higher absolute and relative concentrations of innovation than most other types of area.},
note = {118},
pages = {789-804},
number = {6},
volume = {39},
journal = {Regional Studies},
title = {Innovation and space: A critical review of the literature},
author = {Simmie , J.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2005},
keywords = {geographical proximity; organised proximity; localization; ubiquity;
interactions; organisation
ECONOMIC-GEOGRAPHY; KNOWLEDGE SPILLOVERS; TACIT KNOWLEDGE; INNOVATION},
abstract = {The objective of this paper is to pave the way for an analysis of the relations between proximity and localization of activities and people, two notions that are often mistaken for one another. Our method consists in exploiting the semantic wealth of the notion of proximity. We distinguish two types of proximity (geographical and organized) and propose a grid of analysis of the main models of geographic organization of activities by articulating both types of proximity. We then introduce the phenomenon of tension between geographical and organized proximity in order to discuss problems that are often underestimated in spatial economy. First, organized proximity offers powerful mechanisms of long-distance coordination that constitute the foundation of the increasing geographical development of socio-economic interactions. The confusion between information interactions and knowledge exchange, and the constraint of being located in proximity neglects the fact that the collective rules and representations do manage, and at a distance, an increasing part of these interactions. It is then shown that there is a disjunction between the need for geographical proximity and co-localization of actors by introducing professional mobility and temporary geographical proximity. We also emphasize the ability of big organizations to manage the presence in different areas of their units, whereas smaller ones are more constrained by fixed co-localizations, which are only needed for certain phases of their interactions. Finally, we raise the often neglected question of the negative effects of geographical proximity which creates tensions between the actors who use limited support-goods and tends to damage the local relational network. However, these negative effects can be limited by integrating them within organizations or institutions, that is through a re-composed organized proximity enabling one to solve conflicts and launch processes of cooperation or negotiation within ad-hoc mechanisms.},
note = {39},
pages = {47-59},
number = {1},
volume = {39},
journal = {Regional Studies},
title = {Proximity and localization},
author = {Torre , A. and Rallett , A.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2005},
keywords = {unemployment rate differentials; regional labour markets; distribution
dynamics; spatial analysis; Spain
REGIONAL UNEMPLOYMENT; SPANISH UNEMPLOYMENT; EUROPEAN-UNION;
DISPARITIES; COUNTRIES; DYNAMICS; MARKET; CONVERGENCE; CLUSTERS; RATES},
abstract = {This paper estimates the external shape of the regional distribution of unemployment rates and it studies intradistribution dynamics to analyse the extent of regional inequalities in unemployment rates in Spain over the last decades. It also assesses the contribution of disequilibrium and equilibrium factors in giving rise to spatial differences in unemployment rates. Besides the traditional regression analysis, the effect of those factors on the whole regional distribution is estimated. Results reveal the existence of large differentials across the Spanish provinces in unemployment rates, the geographical distribution of which is characterized by strong persistence. Most of the characteristics of the distribution are induced by the equilibrium component of unemployment, although the influence of market equilibrium variables vanishes over the period under analysis, whereas the unequal distribution of amenities is the major responsible of spatial inequalities in unemployment rates at the late 1990s.},
note = {36},
pages = {305-318},
number = {3},
volume = {39},
journal = {Regional Studies},
title = {Geographical distribution of unemployment in Spain},
author = {Lopez-Bazo , E. and Del Barrio , T. and Artis , M.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2005},
keywords = {university spin-offs; research park; biotechnology
TECHNOLOGY-TRANSFER; START-UPS; STRATEGIES},
abstract = {This paper presents findings from an analysis of the determinants of the formation of university spin-off companies within the university's research park. We find that university spin-off companies are a greater proportion of the companies in older parks and in parks that are associated with richer university research environments. We also find that university spin-off companies are a larger proportion of companies in parks that are geographically closer to their university and in parks that have a biotechnology focus. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.},
note = {29},
pages = {1106-1112},
number = {7},
volume = {34},
journal = {Research Policy},
title = {Opening the ivory tower's door: An analysis of the determinants of the formation of US university spin-off companies},
author = {Link , A. N. and Scott , J. T.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2005},
keywords = {globalization; suburbanization; housing consumption; environmental
degradation
URBAN SUSTAINABILITY; METROPOLITAN REGION; GEOGRAPHIC RESEARCH;
LATIN-AMERICA; CITY; JAKARTA; CITIES; CHINA; DECENTRALIZATION; INDONESIA},
abstract = {This paper examines how cultural, economic and political aspects of globalization interact with processes of urbanization in less developed country (LDC) cities to create new landscapes of housing consumption. Drawing evidence from the current literature, the paper demonstrates that globalization processes influence the housing preferences and housing consumption decisions of a small yet growing, middle-income segment of LDC urban residents. These changes lead to patterns of urban resource use akin to those associated with suburbanization and suburban sprawl in more developed Countries (MDC), particularly the USA. It) effect, these changes amount to the manifest export of the American Dream - the ideal of homeownership of a single-family house in a suburban area - to LDC cities. A critical element of this process explored in the paper is how this suburban ideal is set down within each city context. This placement is presented as the result of global-, national- and local-level drivers. The emergence of consumption landscapes raises critical questions about the environmental and social sustainability of globalization, as LDC residents increasingly emulate the highly resource-consumptive. energy-intensive and exclusionary lifestyles currently practised by MDC suburbanites.},
note = {81},
pages = {241-253},
number = {2},
volume = {39},
journal = {Regional Studies},
title = {Exporting the American dream: The globalization of suburban consumption landscapes},
author = {Leichenko , R. M. and Solecki , W. D.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2005},
keywords = {regional disparities; economic capability; cluster analysis; East
Germany
GROWTH},
abstract = {Economic capability of East German regions: results of a cluster analysis, Regional Studies 39, 739-750. This paper analyses the economic capability of East German regions compared with West German regions. Based on new growth theory and new economic geography, and using relevant empirical literature, regions are clustered according to a set of growth factors. The clustering results find little evidence that the economic capability of East German regions is already comparable with West German regions. Economic disadvantages are particularly rooted in lower technical progress, a lack of entrepreneurship, lower business and industrial concentration, and a loss of human capital. However, there are a few East German regions with a high economic capability, but even those suffer from economic disadvantages such as lower technical progress, lower industrial activity and a poorer regional accessibility.},
note = {33},
pages = {739-750},
number = {6},
volume = {39},
journal = {Regional Studies},
title = {Economic capability of East German regions: Results of a cluster analysis},
author = {Kronthaler , F.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2005},
keywords = {resource-based view; diversification strategy; human resources; firm
performance; professional service firms
HUMAN-RESOURCE MANAGEMENT; SUSTAINABLE COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE;
PROFESSIONAL SERVICE FIRMS; CORPORATE-LAW FIRM; ECONOMIC-PERFORMANCE;
INTANGIBLE RESOURCES; PERSPECTIVE; CAPABILITIES; VIEW; COMPETENCE},
abstract = {Using key insights from the resource-based view of the firm, we develop and test a theory of how firms can successfully deploy and develop their strategic human assets while managing the trade-offs in their service and geographical diversification strategies. In a sample of large law firms we find that, even though firms profit from expert human-capital leveraging strategy and service and geographical diversification strategies individually, pursuing these strategies simultaneously at high levels produces negative interaction effects on firm profitability. In addition, the internally developed, firm-specific associate human capital strategically fits better with high levels of expert human-capital leveraging. While lateral hiring helps firms build new knowledge bases and take advantage of growth opportunities, pursuing high levels of both expert human-capital leveraging and lateral hiring of associates results in lower profitability. To fully capture the economic benefits from strategies of diversification, human-capital leveraging and lateral hiring, firms should understand and manage the complex interdependencies among multiple levels of strategy. Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.},
note = {77},
pages = {967-985},
number = {10},
volume = {26},
journal = {Strategic Management Journal},
title = {How do interdependencies among human-capital deployment, development, and diversification strategies affect firms' financial performance?},
author = {Kor , Y. Y. and Leblebici , H.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2005},
keywords = {LOCAL GOVERNANCE; PUBLIC-POLICY; REGIONALISM; GEOGRAPHIES},
note = {61},
pages = {397-403},
number = {4},
volume = {39},
journal = {Regional Studies},
title = {State modernization, devolution and economic governance: An introduction and guide to debate},
author = {Jones , M. and Goodwin , M. and Jones , R.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2005},
keywords = {regional culture; embeddedness; innovation; high-tech; Mormonism; Salt
Lake City, Utah
TACIT KNOWLEDGE; DECISION-MAKING; FIRMS; GEOGRAPHY; NETWORK; RIGOUR; US},
abstract = {Demystifying the role of culture in innovative regional economies, Regional Studies 39, 1197-1216. Within the regional learning and innovation literature, the precise impact of regional 'culture' on firms' competitive performance remains unspecified. In response, this paper draws on research on Utah's high-tech industrial agglomeration, embedded in a highly visible regional culture: Mormonism. Focusing specifically on computer software firms, the paper first shows how the cultural embeddedness of firms in the region is best understood as a series of sustained tensions between: (1) self-identified regional cultural traits imported into the firm; versus (2) key elements of corporate cultures known to underpin innovation. Second, the paper measures the material impact of that regional cultural embedding on firms' innovative capacities and hence abilities to compete. Finally, it outlines the wider relevance of the author's work with regard to the spatial limits imposed on high-tech cluster policy by cultural context.},
note = {86},
pages = {1197-1216},
number = {9},
volume = {39},
journal = {Regional Studies},
title = {Demystifying the role of culture in innovative regional economies},
author = {James , A.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2005},
keywords = {cluster policy; cluster initiative; regional economic promotion;
institutions
INDUSTRIAL CLUSTERS; POLICY; GEOGRAPHY; NETWORKS},
abstract = {The cluster concept has become a popular guideline for regional policies fostering industrial competitiveness and innovativeness based on sectoral specialization and collaboration. This article discusses the issue of effective institutional forms of cluster promotion, juxtaposing two modes: Explicit cluster policies implemented top-down by regional authorities and implicit initiatives that are organized and financed bottom-up by groups of firms. Both approaches are compared from a theoretical and empirical perspective, pointing out differing patterns of effects, relative strengths and weaknesses. Realization of these differences, considered in relation to regional preconditions and objectives, may help to adequately institutionalize cluster support. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.},
note = {72},
pages = {1250-1268},
number = {8},
volume = {34},
journal = {Research Policy},
title = {How to institutionalize innovative clusters? Comparing explicit top-down and implicit bottom-up approaches},
author = {Fromhold-Eisebith , M. and Eisebith , G.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2005},
keywords = {growth empirics; convergence clubs; regional disparities;
stratification; bimodality
EUROPEAN-UNION; CONVERGENCE HYPOTHESIS; ECONOMIC-GROWTH; GALTONS
FALLACY; MARKOV-CHAIN; DISPARITIES; TRANSITION; MODELS; TESTS;
PERFORMANCE},
abstract = {The dynamics of Russian regional clubs: the time of divergence. Regional Studies 39, 713-726. This paper examines the evolution of Russian regional disparities in the light of the theory of convergence clubs. The first part presents the limits of the methodology traditionally used in most studies of the convergence process. For example, the choice of indicators (usually per-capita income or labour productivity) and the statistical test applied (beta- or sigma-convergence) strongly influence the results obtained, sometimes adversely. Then, following the works of Quah and Fingleton, the superiority of an analysis of distribution dynamics, especially one based on Markov chains, is explained. The second part presents the main results based on the per-capita regional income of the Russian database (88 regions) over a fairly long period (1985-99). The key conclusion is the strong diversity of regional evolutions, which are characterized by both inertia (rich regions remain rich, poor regions remain poor) and mobility (some rich regions become poor and vice versa). The value of an analysis of downward mobility relative to upward mobility (34 regions to 11), as well as of economic geography through specific spatial dynamics, are demonstrated. A clear bimodality (implosion of the two intermediate clubs) emerges, which confirms the present stratification process. In other words, Russia is emerging as a multipolarized economy.},
note = {84},
pages = {713-726},
number = {6},
volume = {39},
journal = {Regional Studies},
title = {Dynamics of Russian regional clubs: The time of divergence},
author = {Carluer , F.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2005},
keywords = {regional innovation systems; knowledge bases; Nordic countries
PERSPECTIVE; CREATION; NETWORKS; DYNAMICS},
abstract = {The analysis of the importance of different types of regional innovation systems must take place within a context of the actual knowledge base of various industries in the economy, as the innovation processes of firms are strongly shaped by their specific knowledge base. In this paper, we shall distinguish between two types of knowledge base: analytical and synthetic. These types indicate different mixes of tacit and codified knowledge, codification possibilities and limits, qualifications and skills, required organisations and institutions involved, as well as specific competitive challenges from a globalising economy, which have different implications for different sectors of industry, and, thus, for the kind of innovation support needed. The traditional constellation of industrial clusters surrounded by innovation supporting organisations, constituting a regional innovation system, is nearly always to be found in contexts of industries with a synthetic knowledge base (e.g. engineering-based industries), while the existence of regional innovation systems as an integral part of a cluster will normally be the case of industries-based on an analytical knowledge base (e.g. science-based industries, such as IT and bio-tech). In the discussion of different types of regional innovation systems five empirical illustrations from a Nordic comparative project on SMEs and regional innovation systems will be used: the furniture industry in Salling, Denmark; the wireless communication industry in North Jutland, Denmark; the functional food industry in Scania, Sweden; the food industry in Rogaland, Norway and the electronics industry in Horten, Norway. We argue that in terms of innovation policy the regional level often provides a grounded approach embedded in networks of actors acknowledging the importance of the knowledge base of an industry. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.},
note = {76},
pages = {1173-1190},
number = {8},
volume = {34},
journal = {Research Policy},
title = {Knowledge bases and regional innovation systems: Comparing Nordic clusters},
author = {Asheim , B. T. and Coenen , L.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2005},
keywords = {university spillover; firm location
GROWTH; FIRMS; GEOGRAPHY; GERMANY; MODEL},
abstract = {The purpose of this paper is to test whether the Knowledge Spillover Theory of Entrepreneurship holds for regions. We do this by linking investments in knowledge by universities and regions to the amount of entrepreneurial activity associated with each university. Using binomial regressions we estimate how the number of young and high-tech firms located around universities depends on regional factors and the output of universities. The results clearly show that the number of firms located close to a university is positively influenced by the knowledge capacity of this region and the knowledge output of a university. Thus, there is considerable evidence suggesting that the Knowledge Spillover Theory of Entrepreneurship holds for regions as well as for industries. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.},
note = {33},
pages = {1191-1202},
number = {8},
volume = {34},
journal = {Research Policy},
title = {Does the knowledge spillover theory of entrepreneurship hold for regions?},
author = {Audretsch , D. B. and Lehmann , E. E.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2005},
keywords = {patent statistics; regional innovation; commuters},
abstract = {Numerous studies have been conducted in the past using patent statistics to explain and compare the innovative forces of districts, regions and countries. The usual method of calculating the regional distribution of patent counts - not only in Germany but in many countries all over the world - is to assign the patents to districts by inventors' residential addresses. This is considered more appropriate than assigning the inventions by the address of the applying company which, in the case of larger firms' headquarters, holdings or subsidiaries, can be very misleading in geographical terms. It is commonly agreed that this method, due to the streams of commuters, leads to an underestimation of the innovative activities in the agglomeration - an issue that has, to our knowledge, never been proven. In this paper we suggest two ways that may help to get a more realistic picture of the regional distribution of innovation activities in the future and even, with hindsight, for past data. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.},
note = {20},
pages = {221-234},
number = {2},
volume = {34},
journal = {Research Policy},
title = {Commuters and the regional assignment of innovative activities: A methodological patent study of German districts},
author = {Deyle , H. G. and Grupp , H.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2005},
keywords = {firm entry; exit; house-building; Ontario
SPATIAL VARIATIONS; SIZE STRUCTURE; DETERMINANTS; SURVIVAL; INDUSTRY;
ENTRY; RATES; PATTERNS; DEATHS; BIRTHS},
abstract = {This paper presents cross-sectional analyses of firm exit (1991) and entry (1996) in house-building using a geographic information system of firms in Ontario's 48 counties (regions). Ordinary least-squares and logit regressions of entry and exit rates reveal several regional determinants, some specific to the housing market (prior construction) and others usually found in regional studies of firm dynamics (population density, market growth, incomes, immigration, unemployment and home ownership). The results suggest that housing policy may be best administered at the regional scale - the scale at which builders typically operate in North America.},
note = {48},
pages = {699-712},
number = {6},
volume = {39},
journal = {Regional Studies},
title = {What explains firm transience in housebuilding? A regional analysis of Ontario, Canada, 1991 and 1996},
author = {Buzzelli , M.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2005},
keywords = {MANHATTAN HOTEL INDUSTRY; COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE; DIFFERENTIATION;
NETWORKS; EXTERNALITIES; HETEROGENEITY; LOCALIZATION; KNOWLEDGE;
CLUSTERS; DYNAMICS},
abstract = {This study provides evidence regarding the strategic dynamics of competitive clusters. Firms that agglomerate (co-locate) may benefit from the differentiation of competitors without making similar differentiating investments themselves. Alternatively, co-locating with a high percentage of firms with low-cost strategic orientations reduces performance for firms pursuing high levels of differentiation. Further, the lowest-cost providers with the greatest strategic distance from the norm of the competitive cluster reap the greatest benefit from co-location with differentiated firms. We find empirical support for these ideas using a sample of 14,995 U.S. lodging establishments, and controlling for a number of key demand-shaping factors.},
note = {34},
pages = {565-581},
number = {4},
volume = {48},
journal = {Academy of Management Journal},
title = {Agglomeration efects and strategic orientations: Evidence from the US lodging industry},
author = {Canina , L. and Enz , C. A. and Harrison , J. S.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2005},
keywords = {agglomeration; Ellison and Glaeser index; spatial autocorrelation;
Belgium
INNOVATION; CITIES},
abstract = {The aim of this study is to provide a comprehensive discussion of the use of the Ellison and Glaeser index and subsequently to carry out a descriptive analysis of the geographical concentration of the manufacturing sector in Belgium. To assess the degree of concentration, individual plant data on wage and salary earners are used, with a relatively fine geographical breakdown (districts and townships). It is shown that more than 30% of the industries are excessively agglomerated.},
note = {31},
pages = {567-583},
number = {5},
volume = {39},
journal = {Regional Studies},
title = {Geographical agglomeration: Ellison and Glaeser's index applied to the case of Belgian manufacturing industry},
author = {Bertinelli , L. and Decrop , A.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2005},
keywords = {globalization of R&D; location of R&D units; embeddedness; Germany
RESEARCH-AND-DEVELOPMENT; HOME COUNTRY ADVANTAGES;
MULTINATIONAL-CORPORATION; SWEDISH MULTINATIONALS; DEVELOPMENT
MANAGEMENT; INNOVATION NETWORKS; INTERNATIONALIZATION; TECHNOLOGY;
GLOBALIZATION; FIRMS},
abstract = {This paper reports on the international research and development (R&D) investments of German multinational corporations (MNCs). Based on a detailed empirical survey of laboratory sites established by 49 German MNCs, we examine (i) the level and pace of R&D internationalization, (ii) the motivations and mandates of overseas R&D laboratories, as well as (iii) the strength of the laboratories' internal and external ties. Participating firms account for about 46% of all German enterprises with international R&D activities and approximately 66% of the nation's privately funded R&D expenditures in 1999. The findings indicate that the tinting and organization of German owned overseas R&D investments more closely resemble Japanese or French than US or Swedish firms. Furthermore, in line with prior studies, German NMCs increasingly invest in international R&D for resource as opposed to market-seeking motives. The paper also finds significant differences with regard to the laboratory's mission and its geographical location on one hand, and its internal and external embeddedness, on the other. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.},
note = {91},
pages = {395-410},
number = {4},
volume = {34},
journal = {Research Policy},
title = {Foreign direct investment in industrial research and development: A study of German MNCs},
author = {Ambos , B.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2005},
keywords = {innovation; networks; multiple networks; industry clusters; mutual funds
GEOGRAPHIC LOCALIZATION; AGGLOMERATION ECONOMIES; INDUSTRIAL DISTRICTS;
PERSPECTIVE; INNOVATORS; DIFFUSION; LOCATION; SYSTEMS; LOCUS},
abstract = {This paper extends current knowledge of industry clusters by disentangling the effects of networks from cluster (i.e., distinctly geographic) mechanisms on firm performance as well as by studying the influence of these different mechanisms on firms located inside and outside the industry cluster. It also highlights the importance of simultaneously modeling multiple networks which may differentially influence important firm outcomes. In the paper, I model the innovativeness of Canadian mutual fund companies as a function of their geographic location-inside or outside the industry cluster of Toronto-and of their centrality in networks of managerial and institutional ties. I find that locating in the industry cluster as well as centrality in the managerial tie network enhances firm innovation, while centrality in the institutional tie network does not. Copyright (C) 2005 John Wiley Sons, Ltd.},
note = {57},
pages = {287-295},
number = {3},
volume = {26},
journal = {Strategic Management Journal},
title = {Clusters, networks, and firm innovativeness},
author = {Bell , G. G.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2005},
keywords = {multinational corporations; research and development activities;
spillovers; externalities; European regions
DIRECT-INVESTMENT; GEOGRAPHIC LOCALIZATION; INTERNATIONAL-TRADE;
ECONOMIC-GEOGRAPHY; PRODUCT CYCLE; INNOVATION; TECHNOLOGY; KNOWLEDGE;
US; GLOBALIZATION},
abstract = {Recent location of foreign-owned research and development activities by large multinational corporations in the European regions: the role of spillovers and externalities, Regional Studies 39, 1-16. This paper examines the role of spillovers and externalities in influencing the recent siting of foreign-owned research and development activities in European regions. In accordance with the literature on knowledge creation in multinational corporations, the location of foreign-owned research tends to agglomerate depending upon the potential for the following different sources of spillovers and externalities: (1) intra-industry spillovers or specialization externalities associated with the presence of a wide-ranging collection of firms active in the same sector; (2) inter-industry spillovers or diversity externalities associated with the co-presence of firms working in different fields; and (3) science-technology spillovers and externalities stemming from the presence of a munificent scientific and educational infrastructure. Additionally, benefits from spillovers decline with distance, but this holds especially for intra- and inter-industry spillovers.},
note = {84},
pages = {1-16},
number = {1},
volume = {39},
journal = {Regional Studies},
title = {Recent location of foreign-owned research and development activities by large multinational corporations in the European regions: The role of spillovers and externalities},
author = {Cantwell , J. and Piscitello , L.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2005},
keywords = {geographic proximity; organisational proximity; knowledge-acquisition;
SME growth; regional policy
HIGH-TECHNOLOGY SMES; INDUSTRIAL DISTRICTS; INNOVATIVE ACTIVITY;
CLUSTERS; LOCATION; FIRMS; BIOTECHNOLOGY; NETWORKS; GROWTH;
INTERNATIONALIZATION},
abstract = {Knowledge-acquisition activities of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are assumed to benefit from geographic proximity to similar firms and centres of research excellence. This paper will explore the knowledge-acquisition processes and critical interfaces of innovative SMEs and outline factors that contributed to an observed lack of geographic proximity-based knowledge search activity. A growth path based upon innovation driven, rapid internationalisation and subsequent customisation strategies fostered organisational proximity-based knowledge-acquisition from international sources. It is argued that local contextual factors will determine if organisational or geographic proximity (or both) are the key to knowledge-acquisition. The recognition of a diversity of potential growth trajectories is recommended for SME policies. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.},
note = {74},
pages = {683-701},
number = {5},
volume = {34},
journal = {Research Policy},
title = {Exploring the role of proximity in SME knowledge-acquisition},
author = {Davenport , S.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2005},
keywords = {collective learning; local knowledge; endogenous local economic
development; relational capital
DEVELOPMENT SPILLOVERS; KNOWLEDGE; SIZE},
abstract = {Innovative capacity of firms has traditionally been explained through intra-firm characteristics. In the more recent literature, much emphasis has been put on determinants that are external to the firm. These external factors, called knowledge spillovers, refer to the positive externalities that firms receive in terms of knowledge from the environment in which they operate. Geographers and industrial economists underline the importance of knowledge spillovers. As the paper underlines, an important difference exists between the approach of knowledge spillover and that of socialized processes of local knowledge creation developed by regional economists; while in the former, the mere probability of contacts explains local knowledge transfer, in the latter, the channels through which knowledge spills over a local area are clearly identified in the relational capital of the area. Relational capital is defined as all relationships-market relationships, power relationships and cooperation established between firms, institutions and people, which stem from a strong sense of belonging and a highly developed capacity of cooperation typical of culturally similar people and institutions. The main aims of the paper are twofold. The first is to underline the major conceptual differences between industrial and regional economists. The second is to provide a quantitative empirical approach, using econometric techniques, to verify the existence and importance of relational capital on the innovation activity of firms. Proxies are found to represent the channels through which local knowledge develops at the local level and therefore indirectly of relational capital. The different regional, sectoral and firm characteristics are also analysed to understand whether they influence the role relational capital has on innovation. It is indeed reasonable to expect that relational capital will play a different role in different regional, sectoral and firm's contexts.},
note = {53},
pages = {75-87},
number = {1},
volume = {39},
journal = {Regional Studies},
title = {Collective learning and relational capital in local innovation processes},
author = {Capello , R. and Faggian , A.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2005},
keywords = {clusters' dimensions; buzz; pipelines; over-embeddedness;
under-socialization; media; industry; Leipzig
ADVANCED MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGIES; REGIONAL-DEVELOPMENT;
ABSORPTIVE-CAPACITY; SOCIAL-STRUCTURE; TACIT KNOWLEDGE; NETWORKS;
EMBEDDEDNESS; INSTITUTIONS; ORGANIZATION; INNOVATION},
abstract = {This paper uses a multidimensional cluster concept that views processes of knowledge creation as being decisive in explaining how clusters are established, why they grow and how they reproduce themselves. It is suggested that clusters can only create new knowledge and continue to grow if the cluster firms have linkages with external markets and employ a mix of local and non-local transactions. Local interaction or 'buzz' and interaction through global or trans-local I pipelines' create a dynamic process of knowledge creation which is the key to understanding a cluster's growth process. It is argued that the lack of a reflexive mechanism of local and trans-local interaction is the reason as to why the Leipzig media industry cluster has Stagnated in recent years after a decade of substantial growth. In this cluster, we are confronted with what is referred to as the 'distanced neighbour' paradox. Firms in the Leipzig media sector are neither characterized by strong pipelines to firms and markets outside the cluster nor do they engage in intensive local networking and interactive learning. The paper explores the conceptual foundations of this phenomenon and applies it to the case of Leipzig, Germany.},
note = {136},
pages = {105-127},
number = {1},
volume = {39},
journal = {Regional Studies},
title = {Cluster relations in the media industry: Exploring the 'distanced neighbour' paradox in Leipzig},
author = {Bathelt , H.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2005},
keywords = {science; research and development; collaboration; teams
RESEARCH-AND-DEVELOPMENT; OF-LABOR; BIOTECHNOLOGY; QUALITY},
abstract = {This paper explores recent trends in the size of scientific teams and in institutional collaborations. The data derive from 2.4 million scientific papers written in 110 top U.S. research universities over the period 1981-1999. The top 110 account for a large share of published basic research conducted in the U.S. during this time. We measure team size by the number of authors on a scientific paper. Using this measure we find that team size increases by 50% over the 19-year period. We supplement team size with measures of domestic and foreign institutional collaborations, which capture the geographic dispersion of team workers. The time series evidence suggests that the trend towards more geographically dispersed scientific teams accelerates beginning with papers published at the start of the 1990s. This acceleration suggests a sharp decline in the cost of collaboration. Our hypothesis is that the decline is due to the deployment of the National Science Foundation's NSFNET and its connection to networks in Europe and Japan after 1987. Using a panel of top university departments we also find that private universities and departments whose scientists have earned prestigious awards participate in larger teams, as do departments that have larger amounts of federal funding. Placement of former graduate students is a key determinant of institutional collaborations, especially collaborations with firms and with foreign scientific institutions. Finally, the evidence suggests that scientific output and influence increase with team size and that influence rises along, with institutional collaborations. Since increasing team size implies an increase in the division of labor, these results suggest that scientific productivity increases with the scientific division of labor. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.},
note = {38},
pages = {259-285},
number = {3},
volume = {34},
journal = {Research Policy},
title = {Scientific teams and institutional collaborations: Evidence from US universities, 1981-1999},
author = {Adams , J. D. and Black , G. C. and Clemmons , J. R. and Stephan , P. E.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2005},
note = {1},
pages = {677-677},
number = {5},
volume = {39},
journal = {Regional Studies},
title = {The Europeans: A geography of people, culture and environment},
author = {Edelman , D. J.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2005},
keywords = {INNOVATION; GEOGRAPHY},
note = {7},
pages = {41-45},
number = {1},
volume = {39},
journal = {Regional Studies},
title = {Role of proximity in interaction and performance: Conceptual and empirical challenges},
author = {Boschma , R. A.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2005},
keywords = {innovation; economic geography; economic development policy
NEW-YORK-CITY; SILICON VALLEY; INNOVATION; FIRM; BIOTECHNOLOGY;
NETWORKS; CLUSTERS},
abstract = {This paper aims to advance economic development theory through the concept of jurisdictional advantage; demonstrating how places might strategically position themselves to gain economic advantage; then considering how this place-specific advantage might be constructed. We choose the term jurisdiction to define the set of actors that have a common interest in a spatially bound community. Jurisdictions are entities with a legitimate political ability to influence social and economic outcomes within their boundaries. Borrowing from the literature on corporate strategy, the uniqueness of local capabilities becomes a source of advantage for jurisdictions. We consider how to measure and construct jurisdictional advantage. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.},
note = {60},
pages = {1235-1249},
number = {8},
volume = {34},
journal = {Research Policy},
title = {Constructing jurisdictional advantage},
author = {Feldman , M. and Martin , R.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2005},
keywords = {entrepreneurship; regional economic activity; growth; development and
changes; regional development policy; innovation and invention :
processes and incentives
EVOLUTIONARY ECONOMICS},
abstract = {The objective of the paper is to provide a theoretical model of cluster development that is informed by an appreciative interpretation of case studies. It argues that entrepreneurs are a critical element in the formation of clusters. Entrepreneurs are important actors in the development of clusters as complex adaptive systems, where the external resources associated with clusters are developed over time. Entrepreneurs who adapt to both constructive crises and new opportunities create the factors and conditions that facilitate their business interests and, in turn, contribute to the development of external resources. The paper examines the initial factors that influence the decision to become an entrepreneur and examine how external factors influence the formation and location of high-technology clusters.},
note = {58},
pages = {129-141},
number = {1},
volume = {39},
journal = {Regional Studies},
title = {Creating a cluster while building a firm: Entrepreneurs and the formation of industrial clusters},
author = {Feldman , M. P. and Francis , J. and Bercovitz , J.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2005},
keywords = {regionalisation; open innovation; asymmetric knowledge; 'Globalisation
2'
BIOTECHNOLOGY; NETWORKS; STRATEGIES; MANAGEMENT; CLUSTERS; SCIENCE;
CITIES; SPACES; SCALE},
abstract = {This paper proposes to review and assess social scientific debate about the origins and nature of innovation in modem society. It focuses on three sub-sets of conceptualisation, critique and commentary that refer specifically to sub-national or regional innovation systems. Research in the latter field has grown enormously in recent years. Moreover, new perspectives from other disciplines than regional science have been promoted. One distinctive view of relevance in that it is focused on the role in innovation of specific 'entrepreneurial universities' in relation to industry and government is, of course, the 'Triple Helix' approach. This is reviewed and sympathetically critiqued. A second view, less sympathetically critiqued here, is one that itself attacks all so-called 'new regionalism' for stressing the importance of institutions, industry embeddedness and the micro-science of regional economic development. Dazzled by 'Globalisation 1' and the totalising power of 'scale' geographies, this rejection of the worth of spatial analysis at less than the global or national 'scalar envelope' is assessed for its potential insights into weaknesses of the regional innovation systems approach but found wanting in both technical accuracy and scholarly competence. Finally, the state of the art in regional innovation systems research is sketched by reference both to recent longitudinal findings and elaborations into specific technological fields, particularly but not only Bioregional Innovation Systems that help move us towards a newer theory of economic geography in the knowledge economy, based on 'regional knowledge capabilities.' The analysis conclusively proposes 'Globalisation 2', a 'ground-up' knowledge-driven evolution of the earlier 'top-down' multilateral trade institution and corporately driven 'Globalisation 1.' (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.},
note = {83},
pages = {1128-1149},
number = {8},
volume = {34},
journal = {Research Policy},
title = {Regionally asymmetric knowledge capabilities and open innovation exploring 'Globalisation 2' - A new model of industry organisation},
author = {Cooke , P.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2005},
keywords = {research and development (R&D); urban agglomeration; geographic
charisma; learning theory
RESEARCH-AND-DEVELOPMENT; AGGLOMERATION ECONOMIES; GROWTH;
DETERMINANTS; LOCALIZATION; SPILLOVERS; INNOVATION; CULTURE; CITIES;
MATTER},
abstract = {The emergence of new industrial spaces over the past several decades that have radically altered the economic geography of the USA raises questions about the mechanisms responsible for their formation. Existing theories predict either continued concentration or spatial dispersion; none predicts the rise of new geographic agglomerations of establishments. A behavioural theory of agglomeration formation explains the emergence of regionally dispersed, local agglomerations by means of mimetic behaviour. A method for detecting social influence in cross-sectional data is applied to data on the 1985 locations by county of over 10000 privately owned research laboratories to show that the theoretical model accurately reproduces a key aspect of the existing spatial pattern. The results suggest that laboratories are, to a significant extent, reacting to each other's actions, creating symbolic, rather than functional, communities and that the locus of power determining local growth is diffused among location decision-makers.},
note = {99},
pages = {17-39},
number = {1},
volume = {39},
journal = {Regional Studies},
title = {Location patterns of US industrial research: Mimetic isomorphism and the emergence of geographic charisma},
author = {Appold , S. J.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2005},
keywords = {strategic leadership; innovation influence; social culture; TMT tenure
heterogeneity
TOP MANAGEMENT TEAM; STRATEGIC DECISION-MAKING; ORGANIZATIONAL
PERFORMANCE; TRANSACTIONAL LEADERSHIP; TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP;
CHARISMATIC LEADERSHIP; PERSONALITY; CREATIVITY; HETEROGENEITY;
DIFFERENCE},
abstract = {This study investigates the relationship of strategic leadership behaviors with executive innovation influence and the moderating effects of top management team (TMT)'s tenure heterogeneity and social culture on that relationship. Using survey data from six countries comprising three social cultures, strategic leadership behaviors were found to have a strong positive relationship with executive influence on both product-market and administrative innovations. In addition, TMT tenure heterogeneity moderated the relationship of strategic leadership behaviors with executive innovation influence for both types of innovation, while social culture moderated that relationship only in the case of administrative innovation. Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.},
note = {106},
pages = {665-682},
number = {7},
volume = {26},
journal = {Strategic Management Journal},
title = {Straegic leadership and executive innovation influence: An international multi-cluster comparative study},
author = {Elenkov , D. S. and Judge , W. and Wright , P.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2005},
keywords = {university spillovers; new firm location; spillover mechanisms
KNOWLEDGE; BIOTECHNOLOGY; TECHNOLOGY; INVENTIONS; INNOVATION; TRANSFERS},
abstract = {This paper examines the impact of locational choice as a firm strategy to access knowledge spillovers from universities. Based on a large dataset of publicly listed, high-technology startup firms in Germany, we test the proposition that proximity to the university is shaped by different spillover mechanisms-research and human capital-and by different types of knowledge spillovers-natural sciences and social sciences. The results suggest that spillover mechanisms as well as spillover types are heterogeneous. In particular, the evidence suggests that new knowledge and technological-based firms have a high propensity to locate close to universities, presumably in order to access knowledge spillovers. However, the exact role that geographic proximity plays is shaped by the two factors examined in this paper-the particular knowledge context, and the specific type of spillover mechanism. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.},
note = {41},
pages = {1113-1122},
number = {7},
volume = {34},
journal = {Research Policy},
title = {University spillovers and new firm location},
author = {Audretsch , D. B. and Lehmann , E. E. and Warning , S.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2005},
keywords = {geography of innovation; research and development (R&D); patents
ACADEMIC RESEARCH; KNOWLEDGE SPILLOVERS; TECHNICAL ADVANCE; SCIENCE;
INDUSTRY; PATENTS; FIRMS},
abstract = {Effects of university research on the geography of innovation, Regional Studies 39, 1217-1229. Applied studies on the relationship between geography and technological innovation for the USA, Germany, France and Italy have shown the positive effects that academic research exerts on the innovative output of firms at a spatial level. The purpose of this paper is to look for new evidence on the possible effects of university research for the case of Spanish regions. Within the framework of a Griliches-Jaffe knowledge production function, and using panel data and count models, the relationship between innovative inputs and patents is explored. The results show that university research exerts a positive influence on the regional distribution of private innovation of high-technological content.},
note = {52},
pages = {1217-1229},
number = {9},
volume = {39},
journal = {Regional Studies},
title = {Effects of university research on the geography of innovation},
author = {Del Barrio-Castro , T. and Garcia-Quevedo , J.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2004},
keywords = {firm competencies; geographical spillovers; patents; patent citations
PATENT CITATIONS; SPILLOVERS; INNOVATION; BIOTECHNOLOGY; KNOWLEDGE},
abstract = {The centrality of firms vis-a-vis regions underlines a general contrast between two models of producing innovations. This paper uses a new database composed of 4262 European chemical patents applied by 693 firms during 1987-1996 to compare the relative effect of firm and regional characteristics on the production of technological "hits" (highly cited patents). By using extensive controls, the main finding of the paper is that technological hits in the "traditional" chemical sectors are explained only by R&D intensity at the firm level and the scale of the research projects. Firm competencies, particularly technological specialisation, are still important in biotechnology. However, the distinct feature of the biotechnology model is that localised knowledge spillovers also matter. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.},
note = {43},
pages = {1565-1582},
number = {10},
volume = {33},
journal = {Research Policy},
title = {What determines technological hits? Geography versus firm competencies},
author = {Mariani , M.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2004},
keywords = {competition; regional development; policy; knowledge; world cities
LOCAL ECONOMIC-DEVELOPMENT; HIGH-TECH COMPETITIVENESS; URBAN
COMPETITIVENESS; TECHNOLOGICAL COMPETITIVENESS; TERRITORIAL
COMPETITION; INDUSTRIAL DISTRICTS; ENTREPRENEURIAL CITY; INNOVATION
SYSTEMS; INWARD INVESTMENT; UNITED-STATES},
abstract = {The realization that places compete for investment has expanded in recent years to encompass competition among places for the attention of migrants, tourists and media glow as well as investment. The most competitive places have been multidimensional in their attractions and have made the transition to the knowledge-based economy. The latest priority is being placed on attracting mobile workers and mobile investment. Creative workers are the core of the knowledge economy and of its geographies such as 'intelligent places' and 'learning regions'. Knowledge metrics, innovation indices and report cards are increasingly common, each seemingly developed to sort the list of places in a different order. Lists or league tables of 'the best places' for business, to live, retire and visit are key features of economies and societies whose factors of success are highly mobile. Competition in a geographical context and entrepreneurial responses are unlikely to go away, reinforced by an industry comprised of consultancies, the trade press, formal education and other means of learning. Consequently, policy-makers need to grasp the nature of place competition and the critical roles of knowledge and of networks in the strategies of the most competitive places. The standard of competition is complex, comprising innovation indices and cooperation within the network of world cities.},
note = {199},
pages = {1101-1120},
number = {9},
volume = {38},
journal = {Regional Studies},
title = {Jockeying for position: What it means and why it matters to regional development policy when places compete},
author = {Malecki , E. J.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2004},
keywords = {ALLIANCE FORMATION; SOCIAL NETWORKS; COLLABORATION; PARTNERSHIPS;
PERFORMANCE; INNOVATION; SUCCESS; TIES},
abstract = {This research shows that alliance networks shape how firms respond to uncertainty-reducing information generated outside a network. Product awards signal the potential commercial success of the award-winning firms, which reduces the uncertainty of new R&D investment. Networks magnify or diminish a firm's R&D response to the market signals, depending on the firm's network location, partners' success, technical proximity to partners, and relative capabilities. The study examined 198 U.S. computer and telecommunications firms from 1991 to 2000.},
note = {35},
pages = {907-917},
number = {6},
volume = {47},
journal = {Academy of Management Journal},
title = {Dynamic inducements in R&D investment: Market signals and network locations},
author = {Soh , P. H. and Mahmood , I. P. and Mitchell , W.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2004},
keywords = {data envelopment analysis (DEA); geographic information system (GIS);
accessibility; high-speed train
CITIES},
abstract = {This paper applies Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) methodology to analyse gains in the accessibility of Spanish territory produced by the new high-speed train (HST) Madrid-Barcelona-French border. A geographic information system was used to calculate four complementary partial accessibility indicators: an index of location, economic potential, relative efficiency of the network and daily accessibility. The relative accessibility performance of each city can be discussed according to the results of these partial accessibility indicators. However, conclusions on accessibility changes can be quite contradictory depending on which partial accessibility indicator is considered. For this reason, we propose a new methodology, based on DEA, to obtain a composite accessibility index that produces a better understanding of the overall accessibility changes produced by the new infrastructure. The results of the model will be used to extract some policy considerations with respect to the (polarizing/balancing) effects of the line within the Spanish territory.},
note = {39},
pages = {697-712},
number = {6},
volume = {38},
journal = {Regional Studies},
title = {Data envelopment analysis (DEA) index to measure the accessibility impacts of new infrastructure investments: The case of the high-speed train corridor Madrid-Barcelona-French border},
author = {Martin , J. C. and Gutierrez , J. and Roman , C.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2004},
keywords = {evolutionary economics; economic geography; regional competitiveness;
benchmarking; lock-in; institutions
ECONOMIC-GEOGRAPHY; TACIT KNOWLEDGE; INNOVATION; SYSTEMS; LOCALIZATION;
SPILLOVERS; COMPETENCE; POLICY},
abstract = {Do regions compete, as firms do? How does one deal with the fact that regions, unlike organizations, are entities that do not act? Does it make sense to talk about the ability of regions to generate new variety? This paper aims to address these questions from an evolutionary perspective. It is meaningful to talk about regional competitiveness when the region affects the performances of local firms to a considerable degree. This is especially true when the competitiveness of a region depends oil intangible, non-tradable assets based on a knowledge and competence base embedded in a particular institutional setting that are reproduced and modified through the actions and repeated interactions of actors. Although regions are increasingly becoming collective players actively responding to an increasing exposure to extra-regional competition, the paper explains why there are serious limits in enhancing the competitiveness of regions. By doing so, it questions the usefulness of benchmarking practices with the purpose of improving regional competitiveness: there exists no 'optimal' development model, it is difficult to copy or imitate a successful model from elsewhere, and new trajectories often emerge spontaneously and unexpectedly in space.},
note = {73},
pages = {1001-1014},
number = {9},
volume = {38},
journal = {Regional Studies},
title = {Competitiveness of regions from an evolutionary perspective},
author = {Boschma , R. A.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2004},
keywords = {EMBEDDEDNESS; PERSPECTIVE},
abstract = {Triadic structure is an important, but neglected, aspect of interfirm networks. We developed the constructs clustering and countering as potential drivers of triadic structure and combined them with the recently developed p* network model to demonstrate the value and feasibility of triadic analysis. Exploratory analysis of data from the global steel industry revealed firms' tendency to form transitive triads, in which three firms all have direct ties with each other, especially within blocks defined by geography or technology.},
note = {26},
pages = {918-927},
number = {6},
volume = {47},
journal = {Academy of Management Journal},
title = {Two's company, three's a crowd? Triads in cooperative-competitive networks},
author = {Madhavan , R. and Gnyawali , D. R. and He , J. Y.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2004},
keywords = {patents; university-industry linkages; social networks; academic
inventors
SCIENCE; TECHNOLOGY; UNIVERSITIES; DISCOVERY; KNOWLEDGE; ECONOMICS},
abstract = {This paper proposes a quantitative analysis of social distance between Open Science and Proprietary Technology. A few general properties of social networks within both realms are discussed, as they emerge from the new economics of science and recent applied work on "small worlds". A new data-set on patent inventors is explored, in order to show that social networks within Proprietary Technology are much more fragmented than Open Science ones, except for science-based technologies. Two propositions are then put forward on the "open" behaviour expected from academic inventors, namely university scientists getting involved in Proprietary Technology networks by signing patents. Both propositions are confirmed by data, which show academic inventors to be more central and better connected than non-academic ones. The database and methodology produced for this paper are suggested to be relevant for the more general debate on the role of geographical and cognitive distance in university-industry technology transfer. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.},
note = {30},
pages = {127-145},
number = {1},
volume = {33},
journal = {Research Policy},
title = {Networks of inventors and the role of academia: an exploration of Italian patent data},
author = {Balconi , M. and Breschi , S. and Lissoni , F.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2004},
note = {1},
pages = {118-119},
number = {1},
volume = {38},
journal = {Regional Studies},
title = {Boundaries and place: European borderlands in geographical context},
author = {Boekema , F.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2004},
keywords = {collaboration; scientific and technical human capital; scientific
publication; co-authorship; mentoring
MULTIPLE AUTHORSHIP; COMMUNICATION PATTERNS; CO-AUTHORSHIP; SCIENCE;
PRODUCTIVITY; ORGANIZATION; INDUSTRY},
abstract = {"Scientific and technical human capital" (S&T human capital) has been defined as the sum of researchers' professional network ties and their technical skills and resources [Int. J. Technol. Manage. 22 (7-8) (2001) 636]. Our study focuses on one particular means by which scientists acquire and deploy S&T human capital, research collaboration. We examine data from 451 scientists and engineers at academic research centers in the United States. The chief focus is on scientists' collaboration choices and strategies. Since we are particularly interested in S&T human capital, we pay special attention to strategies that involve mentoring graduate students and junior faculty and to collaborating with women. We also examine collaboration "cosmopolitanism," the extent to which scientists collaborate with those around them (one's research group, one's university) as opposed to those more distant in geography or institutional setting (other universities, researchers in industry, researchers in other nations). Our findings indicate that those who pursue a "mentor" collaboration strategy are likely to be tenured; to collaborate with women; and to have a favorable view about industry and research on industrial applications. Regarding the number of reported collaborators, those who have larger grants have more collaborators. With respect to the percentage of female collaborators, we found, not surprisingly, that female scientists have a somewhat higher percentage (36%) of female collaborators, than males have (24%). There are great differences, however, according to rank, with non-tenure track females having 84% of their collaborations with females. Regarding collaboration cosmopolitanism, we find that most researchers are not particularly cosmopolitan in their selection of collaborators-they tend to work with the people in their own work group. More cosmopolitan collaborators tend have large grants. A major policy implication is that there is great variance in the extent to which collaborations seem to enhance or generate S&T human capital. Not all collaborations are equal with respect to their "public goods" implications. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.},
note = {62},
pages = {599-616},
number = {4},
volume = {33},
journal = {Research Policy},
title = {Scientists' collaboration strategies: implications for scientific and technical human capital},
author = {Bozeman , B. and Corley , E.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2004},
keywords = {multinational competition; liability of foreignness; firm-specific
advantages; geography and history-based ties; global strategy
STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT; LIABILITY; TRADE},
abstract = {Multinational enterprises (MNEs) from different home regions now routinely confront one another in third markets. There is, however, little conceptual or theoretical literature on the determinants of outcome patterns in these contests. This paper offers a first attempt at systematic and parsimonious conceptualization. of the issue. In Brazil, for instance, while U.S.-based MNEs such as Coca-Cola and IBM lead in. their sectors, other leading U.S. MNEs including Citibank, GE, and Pfizer are outsold by European rivals that appear less competitive globally. Extending theory on the liability of foreignness and firm-specific advantages, we contend that (i) the MNE whose home nation has greater ties to the focal host nation (along geographic, colonial, immigration, linguistic, and institutional dimensions) will lead in that host nation; and (ii) ties notwithstanding, if an MNE's firm-specific advantages are so superior that it outsells a rival MNE in that rival's home market, then it will outsell that rival as well in the focal host market. Based on this we develop a conceptual framework, statistical analysis pertaining to MNE competition in Brazil, and three avenues for fruitful new research. Copyright (C) 2003 John Wiley Sons, Ltd.},
note = {29},
pages = {285-293},
number = {3},
volume = {25},
journal = {Strategic Management Journal},
title = {Explaining outcomes in competition among foreign multinationals in a focal host market},
author = {Rangan , S. and Drummond , A.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2004},
note = {1},
pages = {862-863},
number = {7},
volume = {38},
journal = {Regional Studies},
title = {Transportation: A geographical analysis},
author = {Sheppard , G. L.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2004},
keywords = {industrial clusters; industrial agglomeration; statistical
significance; business services
ECONOMIC-GEOGRAPHY; CLUSTERS; SERVICES; NETWORKS; POLICY; FIRMS},
abstract = {A range of quantitative techniques have been employed by researchers in economic geography and other social science disciplines for the purpose of measuring and spatially delimiting agglomerations of industrial activity. However, these techniques appear to have been applied with little consistency within the literature, particularly with regard to the use of arbitrary cut-off values for determining what level of industrial specialization defines an agglomeration. This paper proposes a new measure, the I standardized location quotient', which recognizes agglomerations as being comprised of locations with statistically significant (rather then arbitrarily defined) location quotient values for the industry/activity under analysis. The use of the measure in delimiting spatial agglomerations within the UK business services sector, using recent employment and workplace data, is demonstrated.},
note = {33},
pages = {419-427},
number = {4},
volume = {38},
journal = {Regional Studies},
title = {A note on methods for measuring industnial agglomeration},
author = {O'Donoghue , D. and Gleave , B.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2004},
keywords = {biodiversity; ecological footprint; frequency analysis;
cross-tabulation methods; decision-tree induction methods; sustainable
development
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT; ENVIRONMENT; INDICATORS; ECONOMY; CITY; TIME},
abstract = {The concept of an ecological footprint is intriguing and has prompted an avalanche of theoretical and applied research. In recent publications both the scientific basis and the policy relevance of this concept have been given ample attention, while also much empirical work has been undertaken to assess the value of the ecological footprint in different regions or countries of the world. The paper starts with a concise critical overview of the current discussion on ecological footprints. Its main aim, however, is to provide a meta-analytic assessment and interpretation of the various empirical findings in the recent literature that offer estimated values or ranges of the ecological footprint indicator. The sensitivity of ecological footprints for the stringent assumptions made in the calculation schemes is investigated using frequency analyses, cross-tabulation methods and decision-tree induction methods (a recent technique based on pattern recognition methods). The results show that methodological choice, geographical scales and year of data collection offer a significant explanation for variations in results. The paper concludes with some suggestions for further research.},
note = {61},
pages = {747-765},
number = {7},
volume = {38},
journal = {Regional Studies},
title = {Ecological footprints in plural: A meta-analytic comparison of empirical results},
author = {Nijkamp , P. and Rossi , E. and Vindigni , G.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2004},
note = {1},
pages = {860-861},
number = {7},
volume = {38},
journal = {Regional Studies},
title = {Scale and geographic inquiry: Nature, society and method},
author = {Bloodsworth , G. and Beaty , M.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2004},
keywords = {regional growth; geographic concentration; entrepreneurship; skills
ENDOGENOUS GROWTH; AGGLOMERATION; PRODUCTIVITY; INNOVATION; MODEL},
abstract = {Geographical concentration, entrepreneurship and regional growth: evidence from regional data in Sweden, 1975-99, Regional Studies 38, 929-947. This paper implements Swedish data cross-tabulated on 143 industries (four-digit level) and 70 labour market regions for 1975-99 to examine empirically the degree of concentration in the production of goods and services, the relationship between concentration and regional growth, and the role of regional entrepreneurship. To our knowledge, these issues have not been analysed previously at this level of aggregation. Ellison-Glaeser indexes and Gini location quotients reveal a geographical concentration in Swedish industry that is stronger than in the USA. The econometric results imply a 2-6% higher growth in regionally concentrated industries. The effect is more pronounced for knowledge-intensive manufacturing, network industries and industries intensively using raw material. It is also found that regional entrepreneurship and regional absorption capacity are important explanations of regional growth, whereas the impact of the skill-level and economies of scale is more mixed.},
note = {38},
pages = {929-947},
number = {8},
volume = {38},
journal = {Regional Studies},
title = {Geographical concentration, entrepreneurship and regional growth: Evidence from regional data in Sweden, 1975-99},
author = {Braunerhjelm , P. and Borgman , B.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2004},
keywords = {cluster policy; steel industry; supply chains; North East England},
abstract = {This paper reports on research carried out in response to the decline of the steel industry in North East England. Drawing on survey evidence, it maps out the consequences of contraction for the industry's regional supply chain. The issues confronting engineering firms are explored in particular detail. The changing fortunes of the steel industry supply chain are interpreted in terms of the industrial cluster discourse. It is argued that air effective regional cluster policy needs to identify clusters on a number of variables, including knowledge flows, and should recognize the significance of dynamic cluster evolution.},
note = {18},
pages = {55-66},
number = {1},
volume = {38},
journal = {Regional Studies},
title = {Cluster evolution, the transformation of old industrial regions and the steel industry supply chain in North East England},
author = {Sadler , D.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2004},
keywords = {R&D cooperation; cooperation between firms and research organizations;
success in cooperative agreements; organizational and contextual factors
UNIVERSITY-INDUSTRY ALLIANCES; STRATEGIC ALLIANCES; INTERORGANIZATIONAL
RELATIONSHIPS; TECHNOLOGY-TRANSFER; GEOGRAPHICAL PROXIMITY; MARKETING
CHANNELS; JOINT VENTURES; TRUST; COLLABORATION; PARTNER},
abstract = {The purpose of this paper is to analyze the impact of a series of contextual and organizational factors on the success of 800 cooperative agreements between Spanish firms and research organizations, run between 1995 and 2000. Findings show that the most outstanding factors are, in the case of firms, commitment, previous links, definition of objectives and conflict, whereas for research organizations previous links, communication, commitment, trust and the partners' reputation are more relevant. These study not only provides a comprehensive theoretical model to analyze the success of these agreements but is useful both for improving management of cooperation and for fostering collaboration both at a national an international level. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.},
note = {105},
pages = {17-40},
number = {1},
volume = {33},
journal = {Research Policy},
title = {Determining factors in the success of R&D cooperative agreements between firms and research organizations},
author = {Mora-Valentin , E. M. and Montoro-Sanchez , A. and Guerras-Martin , L. A.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2004},
keywords = {research and development; evaluation; ex ante; regional policy
DEVELOPMENT SPILLOVERS; TECHNOLOGY INFRASTRUCTURE; GEOGRAPHIC
LOCALIZATION; ECONOMIC-IMPLICATIONS; MANUFACTURING PLANTS; KNOWLEDGE
SPILLOVERS; PRODUCTIVITY GROWTH; GOVERNMENT SUPPORT; FIRM SIZE;
INNOVATION},
abstract = {This paper draws on the knowledge-base implicit in ex post evaluations of publicly funded R&D and other related conceptual and empirical studies to suggest a framework for the ex ante evaluation of the regional benefits from R&D projects. The framework developed comprises two main elements: an inventory of the global private and social benefits which might result from any RD project; and, an assessment of the share of these global benefits which might accrue to a host region, taking into account the characteristics of the R&D project and the region's innovation system. The inventory of global benefits separately identifies private and social benefits and distinguishes between increments to public and private knowledge stocks, benefits to R&D productivity and benefits from commercialisation. Potential market and 'pure' knowledge spillovers are also considered separately. The paper concludes with the application of the framework to two illustrative case studies. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V All rights reserved.},
note = {101},
pages = {487-509},
number = {3},
volume = {33},
journal = {Research Policy},
title = {An ex ante evaluation framework for the regional benefits of publicly supported R&D projects},
author = {Roper , S. and Hewitt-Dundas , N. and Love , J. H.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2004},
keywords = {GB counties; clusters; convergence; cumulative causation
ECONOMIC-GROWTH; INCREASING RETURNS; CONVERGENCE; REGIONS},
abstract = {This paper presents an empirical analysis of the growth performances of the GB counties between the late 1970s and early 1990s. Most notable amongst the findings is that there existed an X-shaped cluster of counties centred on Buckinghamshire that performed particularly well in the 1980s. The existence of this cluster explains the sigma divergence combined with a lack of absolute beta convergence found to exist in the data set. These findings are argued to be most consistent with a cumulative causation perspective of the regional growth process operating in the context of specific policy and technology regimes.},
note = {38},
pages = {149-165},
number = {2},
volume = {38},
journal = {Regional Studies},
title = {The growth performances of the GB counties: Some new empirical evidence for 1977-1993},
author = {Roberts , M.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2004},
keywords = {PRODUCT DIVERSIFICATION; MULTINATIONAL FIRMS; JAPANESE FIRMS;
INVESTMENT; STRATEGY; MARKET; GOVERNANCE; INNOVATION; EXPANSION; LIMITS},
abstract = {A proposed theoretical framework for the study of multinationality and performance includes both benefits and costs of geographic expansion over different phases of internationalization. Data on 1,489 Japanese firms over 12 years show a consistent horizontal X S-shaped X relationship between multinationality and performance. Further, firms investing more heavily in intangible assets, such as technology and advertising, achieved greater profitability gains from growth in foreign direct investment. Our framework and findings highlight complexity and temporal dynamics.},
note = {55},
pages = {598-609},
number = {4},
volume = {47},
journal = {Academy of Management Journal},
title = {International diversification and firm performance: The S-CURVE hypothesis},
author = {Lu , J. W. and Beamish , P. W.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2004},
keywords = {overseas R&D; knowledge sourcing; spillover; absorptive capacity;
Japanese firms
UNITED-STATES; INNOVATION; SPILLOVERS; INTERNATIONALIZATION; FIRMS;
MULTINATIONALS; GLOBALIZATION; TECHNOLOGY; GEOGRAPHY; INDUSTRY},
abstract = {This paper purports to study the contribution of R&D at home and abroad to the firm's inventive activity, using a sample of 137 Japanese multinationals. The empirical analysis relates the number of inventions in Japan and that in the US, as measured by the number of patents issued by the USPTO, to the parent's R&D, the US subsidiaries' R&D, the presence of R&D in Europe, the firm's experience in the US, entry mode, and industry dummies. In addition, to study the subsidiary's role in sourcing local technological knowledge, we construct indices of local technological strength of the state in which the subsidiary is located. The results, most importantly, indicate that these indices positively contribute to inventions at home and in the US among Type R firms, whose R&D subsidiaries mainly aim to research, suggesting that knowledge sourcing is an important function of these subsidiaries and locational choice is important for this purpose. These results do not hold among Type S firms, whose R&D subsidiaries mainly aim to support local manufacturing and sales activities. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.},
note = {51},
pages = {807-828},
number = {5},
volume = {33},
journal = {Research Policy},
title = {Overseas R&D, knowledge sourcing, and patenting: an empirical study of Japanese R&D investment in the US},
author = {Iwasa , T. and Odagiri , H.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2004},
keywords = {MANHATTAN HOTEL INDUSTRY; MOTOR SPORT INDUSTRY; ABSORPTIVE-CAPACITY;
INNOVATION; FIRM; TECHNOLOGY; COMPETENCE; NETWORKS; BIOTECHNOLOGY;
AGGLOMERATION},
abstract = {Researchers in international strategy are increasingly investigating the role of regional clusters as features of international industry, most concerned with the competitive role of clusters and the competitive interactions among cluster firms. We look instead at knowledge sharing between firms through the medium of untraded interdependencies-knowledge exchanged informally and without explicit compensation. We specifically address knowledge development at the firm and the cluster level and examine the role of knowledge stocks and flows in establishing competitive advantage for clusters and firms.},
note = {63},
pages = {258-271},
number = {2},
volume = {29},
journal = {Academy of Management Review},
title = {Knowledge, clusters, and competitive advantage},
author = {Tallman , S. and Jenkins , M. and Henry , N. and Pinch , S.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2004},
keywords = {MODELS; SIMULATION; PATTERNS; SCIENCE},
abstract = {Computational modeling simulated innovation diffusion through six prototypical interregional network structures and two distributions of partnering tendencies in dynamic organizational fields. Compared to regional constraints, connections among all geographic regions decreased clearly beneficial innovation diffusion (a low-threshold adoption model) but increased ambiguous innovation diffusion (a social influence model). Compared with uniform partnering tendencies, normally distributed partnering tendencies increased diffusion of ambiguous innovations. Overall, local and interregional network structures interacted with the observability of an innovation's benefits to determine diffusion.},
note = {43},
pages = {938-951},
number = {6},
volume = {47},
journal = {Academy of Management Journal},
title = {Network structure and innovation ambiguity effects on diffusion in dynamic organizational fields},
author = {Gibbons , D. E.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2004},
keywords = {project; project ecology; project-based firm; organisational learning;
software development
KNOWLEDGE; CONTEXT; SYSTEMS; EMBEDDEDNESS; PERSPECTIVE; INNOVATION;
NETWORKS; PRODUCTS},
abstract = {In current theorising, projects and firms are understood as "learning organisations". Although the learning function can be regarded as constituent for both organisational forms, the specific learning mechanisms are connected with opposing features (e.g. long-term, trustful collaboration versus short cyclical, disruptive collaboration). Referring to the first results of qualitative research conducted on the Munich software cluster, this paper aims to explore the functional interplay between projects and firms with regard to organisational learning. The main thesis is that processes of improvement, failure eradication and knowledge accumulation are more likely to take place in firms whereas processes of structural change are more likely to be organised in a project. In complementing one another these functions, however, also generate inconsistencies like contravening learning incentives or contingency traps. Therefore, projects and firms may be regarded as "discordant complements". (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.},
note = {67},
pages = {1529-1546},
number = {10},
volume = {33},
journal = {Research Policy},
title = {Projects and firms as discordant complements: organisational learning in the Munich software ecology},
author = {Ibert , O.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2004},
keywords = {innovation; resources; science; geographic boundaries
RESEARCH-AND-DEVELOPMENT; COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE; DYNAMIC CAPABILITIES;
ORGANIZATIONAL RENEWAL; PRODUCT INTRODUCTION; INDUSTRIAL-RESEARCH;
ESTABLISHED FIRMS; BASIC RESEARCH; LOCAL SEARCH; KNOWLEDGE},
abstract = {In this paper, we examine the emergence of resources. Our analysis of technological capability acquisition by global U.S.-based chemical firms shows that the emergence of resources is inherently evolutionary. We find that path-creating search that generates resource heterogeneity is a response to idiosyncratic situations faced by firms in their local searches. Two such idiosyncratic situations- technology exhaustion and expansion beyond national markets-trigger firms in our sample to create unique innovation search paths. We also find that along a given path firms experiment in order to find the correct investment-in fact, some organizations seem to take a step backward for two steps forward-further demonstrating the evolutionary nature of the resource creation process. Copyright (C) 2004 John Wiley Sons, Ltd.},
note = {114},
pages = {887-907},
number = {8-9},
volume = {25},
journal = {Strategic Management Journal},
title = {Where do resources come from? The role of idiosyncratic situations},
author = {Ahuja , G. and Katila , R.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2004},
keywords = {proximity; teamwork; innovation
PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT TEAMS; GLOBAL VIRTUAL TEAMS; PERFORMANCE;
INTEGRATION; TASK; ORGANIZATIONS; QUALITY; WORK; COMMUNICATION;
MANAGEMENT},
abstract = {Innovation teams vary in terms of team members' proximity, i.e., the degree to which all team members are in direct vicinity over the duration of the project. The proximity of team members, however, has potentially important implications for the collaborative working of teams. In this paper, we develop and test hypotheses relating team members' proximity to the performance-relevant team collaborative processes included in Hoegl and Gemuenden's [Organization Science 12 (4) (2001) 435] teamwork quality framework, i.e., communication, coordination, balance of member contributions, mutual support, effort, and cohesion. Using data from 430 team members and team leaders of 145 software development teams, the results of the regression models show that team members' proximity is significantly related to teamwork quality. However, the magnitude of the relationship between proximity and teamwork quality varies among the six facets of teamwork quality. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.},
note = {66},
pages = {1153-1165},
number = {8},
volume = {33},
journal = {Research Policy},
title = {Team member proximity and teamwork in innovative projects},
author = {Hoegl , M. and Proserpio , L.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2004},
keywords = {Regional Innovation Systems; innovation; network Beauce; Ottawa
NETWORKS; BARCELONA},
abstract = {The Regional Innovation System (RIS) has become a leading approach in explaining the innovation processes and patterns experienced by firms and industries at the regional level. This paper investigates the innovation activities of small and medium sized enterprises in different regions, assesses the extent of their involvement in systemic innovation with other organizations, and examines the nature of regional and more diffused forms of interaction in innovation activity. The discussion draws its empirical substance from the Ottawa and Beauce regions of Canada, regions characterized by different preconditions to innovation in terms of industrial production structure and institutional environments. The results indicate that the innovation activities of surveyed firms in the two regions converge into a similar pattern, as far as innovation practices, information sources and the role of geography are concerned. In addition, the significance of the region as a support to innovation is not confirmed; firms make use of regional, national and even global knowledge sources to sustain innovation.},
note = {61},
pages = {481-494},
number = {5},
volume = {38},
journal = {Regional Studies},
title = {Regional Innovation Systems in Canada: A comparative study},
author = {Doloreux , D.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2004},
keywords = {international management; synergy; technology transfers; social
networks; organizational capabilities
RESEARCH-AND-DEVELOPMENT; SOCIAL-STRUCTURE; ARCHITECTURAL INNOVATION;
DEVELOPMENT LABORATORIES; COMMUNICATION PATTERNS; KNOWLEDGE;
PERFORMANCE; NETWORKS; DIVERSIFICATION; GLOBALIZATION},
abstract = {This paper explores the relationships among,four fundamental determinants of intrafirm competence transfers that have hitherto been analyzed only separately: formal organization structure, informal relations, geographical distance, and relatedness of competencies across subsidiaries. Using a data set consisting of 4840 dyads between new product development teams and subsidiaries that were potential targets for competence transfers in a high-technology, multinational company, we find that these determinants interact in surprising ways to explain different patterns of tranfers. Results revealed that teams prefered to approach people they knew rather than people who knew related technologies well. They also showed that teams steered away from spatially distant subsidiaries that had related competencies and that the negative effect of large spatial distances could be overcome through established informal relations. These findings indicate that studying one of the determinants separately can yield biased results, as their net effect may change when the moderating effects of the other determinants are considered. Research on synergies, integration, technology transfers, and geographical and cultural differentiation in multinational enterprises therefore needs to be broadened by analyzing multiple determinants of competence transfers. Copyright (C) 2004 John Wiley Sons, Ltd.},
note = {65},
pages = {801-822},
number = {8-9},
volume = {25},
journal = {Strategic Management Journal},
title = {How do multinational companies leverage technological competencies? Moving from single to interdependent explanations},
author = {Hansen , M. T. and Lovas , B.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2004},
keywords = {knowledge spillovers; innovation; economic growth; industry structure
SPATIAL EXTERNALITIES; INNOVATION; ECONOMETRICS; GEOGRAPHY; CLUSTERS;
POLICY},
abstract = {The importance of knowledge spillovers for achieving innovation and economic growth is widely recognized. It is not straightforward which types of spillover are most effective: intra-sectoral spillovers or inter-sectoral spillovers. We investigate this controversy using a model of regional growth. The model also deals with the impact of local competition on innovation and growth. The model is estimated using sectoral data for 40 Dutch regions. We find that local competition is important particularly for economic growth in industry sectors (manufacturing and construction), while diversity, a proxy for inter-sectoral spillovers, is important particularly for growth in service sectors. We find no effect for specialization (a proxy for intra-sectoral spillovers).},
note = {29},
pages = {393-407},
number = {4},
volume = {38},
journal = {Regional Studies},
title = {Knowledge spillovers and economic growth: An analysis using data of Dutch regions in the period 1987-1995},
author = {Van Stel , A. J. and Nieuwenhuijsen , H. R.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2004},
keywords = {public policy; regional urban and rural analyses; analysis of growth
development and changes; size and spatial distributions of regional
economic activity
ENTERPRISE ZONES; EMPOWERMENT ZONES; EMPLOYMENT; STATE; TAX},
abstract = {Do large-scale regional economic revitalization programmes maintain their focus on distressed areas over time? While ignored by much of the impact evaluation literature, the question is vital to address as increased public resources are being devoted to local and regional revitalization efforts. Economic rational and previous empirical findings argue in favour of keeping geographically targeted programmes focused exclusively on distressed areas. The issue is examined by estimating probit econometric models to comparatively evaluate the characteristics of the target areas designated in three rounds of US federal Empowerment Zone and EU Objective 2 programmes. The paper finds that although the programmes were fashioned in different ways, subsequent rounds of designation on both continents greatly expanded the programmes to cover areas with less distress.},
note = {48},
pages = {319-334},
number = {3},
volume = {38},
journal = {Regional Studies},
title = {Losing focus: A comparative evaluation of spatially targeted economic revitalization programmes in the US and the EU},
author = {Greenbaum , R. T. and Bondonio , D.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2004},
keywords = {employment-related geographical mobility relocation; migration;
circulation
FAMILY MIGRATION; BRITAIN},
abstract = {Geographical mobility has important implications for policy across a range of different domains. This paper sets out a conceptual framework for distinguishing between different types of geographical mobility and reviews the changing nature and impacts of different types of employment-related geographical mobility in the UK. Theoretical perspectives on employers' and individuals' rationales for relocation are outlined and in the context of labour market and family changes the paper addresses the question: 'Is relocation redundant?' Case study evidence is used to foreground key issues and to provide pointers to emerging trends in employment-related geographical mobility. It is concluded that while relocation is declining in importance relative to other types of employment-related geographical mobility, it is not redundant.},
note = {38},
pages = {629-641},
number = {6},
volume = {38},
journal = {Regional Studies},
title = {Is relocation redundant? Observations on the changing nature and impacts of employment-related geographical mobility in the UK},
author = {Green , A. E.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2004},
keywords = {endogenous growth theory; new economic geography; knowledge spillovers;
total factor productivity; agglomeration economies
ENDOGENOUS GROWTH; INCREASING RETURNS; ECONOMIC-GROWTH; INNOVATION;
GEOGRAPHY},
abstract = {Knowledge spillovers, agglomeration and macroeconomic growth: an empirical approach, Regional Studies 38, 977-989. Endogenous growth theory emphasizes the role of knowledge spillovers in macroeconomic growth but leaves out the regional dimension, although substantial evidence has been provided in the recent empirical economics literature that a significant fraction of knowledge spillovers tends to be localized. The new economic geography literature extends this framework by pointing to the interplay between spillovers and agglomeration and to the resulting cumulative regional growth, but until the recently, it has left out the macroeconomic dimension. This paper takes a step in the direction of empirically investigating the role of localized factors of technological change in macroeconomic growth. It is suggested that not only technological change, but also spatial economic structure should be treated endogenously in economic growth models. It is argued that the particular spatial structure of the economy is an important factor in macroeconomic growth. To demonstrate this, an empirical modelling framework is developed that links a model of localized knowledge production with a complete macro econometric model and applies Hungarian data in concrete investigations.},
note = {51},
pages = {977-989},
number = {8},
volume = {38},
journal = {Regional Studies},
title = {Knowledge spillovers, agglomeration and macroeconomic growth: An empirical approach},
author = {Varga , A. and Schalk , H. J.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2004},
note = {1},
pages = {227-228},
number = {2},
volume = {38},
journal = {Regional Studies},
title = {The Internet on Earth: A geography of information},
author = {Zook , M.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2004},
keywords = {spillovers; multinational firms; regional policy; special economic
zones transition economies
DIRECT FOREIGN-INVESTMENT; TECHNOLOGY-TRANSFER; DOMESTIC FIRMS;
PANEL-DATA; ECONOMIES; COST},
abstract = {The paper aims to investigate whether there are spillovers and agglomeration effects in the Polish food industry. This part of the research focuses on horizontal or inter-industry types of spillovers assuming that they may be multidirectional and could be based on any kind of community related to geography, industry affiliation and ownership. In the transition countries that have opened up to foreign direct investment very recently, ownership can be an important determinant of the firm's embeddedness in both local and global networks. The study confirms the relevance of all three types of 'community' factors bur raises concerns that foreign investors appear to share their own 'glocal' networks, while spillovers among domestic firms are confined to their own and also to highly localized producer communities. An F-test on the appropriateness of pooling confirms the idea that regional policy may have increased the likelihood of segregation.},
note = {35},
pages = {535-550},
number = {5},
volume = {38},
journal = {Regional Studies},
title = {Localized spillovers in the Polish food industry: The role of FDI in the development process?},
author = {Jensen , C.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2004},
keywords = {telecommunication infrastructure; regional income disparities; law
harmonization; European union; accession
GROWTH; AGGLOMERATION; GEOGRAPHY; CAUSALITY; POLICY},
abstract = {We develop a theoretical model that establishes a link between telecommunications infrastructure and the regional level of income. This relationship is subsequently tested using Polish regional panel data for the 1990s. The empirical results confirm that there exists a positive and statistically significant causal relationship between telecommunications infrastructure and income at the regional level. With causality running from telecommunications to income, telecommunications policy should be viewed as an important part of regional policy aimed at reducing spatial income disparities in Poland. We can expect that EU enlargement and the harmonization of Polish telecommunication law with EU regulations should contribute to more even regional development in Poland.},
note = {36},
pages = {713-725},
number = {6},
volume = {38},
journal = {Regional Studies},
title = {Telecommunications infrastructure and regional economic development: The case of Poland},
author = {Cieslik , A. and Kaniewsk , M.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2004},
keywords = {competitive strategy; firm; industry; country effects
ECONOMIC-GEOGRAPHY; SPECIALIZATION; UNEMPLOYMENT; REVENUE; TRADE; SCOPE},
abstract = {European integration has prompted great interest in the adjustment capacities of small and medium enterprises in regions characterized by high levels of unemployment and lower-than-average incomes. At issue, in these circumstances, is the extent to which economic competitiveness can be enhanced by technological change and the resources of European and national governments. Relying upon the results of a detailed survey of small- and medium-sized firm competitive strategies in selected vulnerable regions across Europe, the paper focuses upon firm adjustment strategies in four labour-intensive industries vulnerable to international competition. It draws together the results of these surveys providing econometric and statistical analyses that demonstrate the commonalities and differences apparent in small- and medium-sized firms' responses to changing market competition. Significant insights were gleaned from the pooling of these data. It is shown that there are statistically significant firm, country and industry effects in competitive strategies. Unlike many other related studies, the derived results are quite consistent across Europe. Furthermore, statistically significant relationships are established between changes in market sales, local employment and the adoption of process-specific technologies. The findings provide robust conclusions about the significance of country and industry determinants of European small and medium enterprises' competitive strategies in relation to the expanding European and global economy. In sum, the paper raises doubts about the value of regional development strategies that rely exclusively upon clusters and geographical embeddedness in the face of globalization.},
note = {36},
pages = {1085-1100},
number = {9},
volume = {38},
journal = {Regional Studies},
title = {Globalization and competitive strategy in Europe's vulnerable regions: Firm, industry and country effects in labour-intensive industries},
author = {Clark , G. L. and Palaskas , T. and Tracey , P. and Tsampra , M.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2004},
keywords = {geographic concentration; Ireland
ECONOMIC-INTEGRATION; INDUSTRY LOCATION},
abstract = {This paper documents the trends in localization of the Irish manufacturing sector since the 1920s and investigates which of three prominent models is most consistent with the data. We find that aggregate manufacturing activity experienced an inverted u-shaped pattern of localization and is now more dispersed than it was in the 1920s. Our analysis of individual sub-sectors shows that, while this long-term trend holds for many of these, there is a considerable amount of heterogeneity in the extent and the evolution of their geographic dispersion. An econometric analysis of a panel of sub-sectors reveals that there is support for old and new trade theories, as well as economic geography models, in explaining location of the more modern manufacturing industries over the long run. For the more recent period since 1972 we find evidence consistent with new economic geography models for all manufacturing industries, while external economies arising from spillovers through foreign direct investment have acted to disperse modern manufacturing activities.},
note = {26},
pages = {191-205},
number = {2},
volume = {38},
journal = {Regional Studies},
title = {Trends and determinants of the geographic dispersion of Irish manufacturing activity, 1926-1996},
author = {Strobl , E.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2004},
keywords = {economic growth; knowledge spillovers; entrepreneurship; industry
diversity
ECONOMIC-DEVELOPMENT; INCREASING RETURNS; SMALL BUSINESS; JOB CREATION;
PRODUCTIVITY; TECHNOLOGY; INNOVATION; GEOGRAPHY; FIRMS},
abstract = {Employment growth and entrepreneurial activity in cities, Regional Studies 38, 911-927. Recent theories of economic growth have stressed the role of externalities in generating growth. Using data from the Census Bureau that tracks all employers in the whole US private-sector economy, the impact of these externalities, as measured by entrepreneurial activity, on employment growth in Local Market Areas are examined. Differences in levels of entrepreneurial activity, diversity among geographically proximate industries and the extent of human capital are positively associated with variation in growth rates, but the manufacturing sector appears to be an exception.},
note = {46},
pages = {911-927},
number = {8},
volume = {38},
journal = {Regional Studies},
title = {Employment growth and entrepreneurial activity in cities},
author = {Acs , Z. J. and Armington , C.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2004},
keywords = {informal contacts; regional clusters; communication technology
INNOVATION; GEOGRAPHY; SPILLOVERS; ECONOMICS; INVENTION},
abstract = {The role of informal networks in the development of regional clusters has recently received a lot of attention in the literature. Informal contact between employees in different firms is claimed to be one of the main carriers of knowledge between firms in a cluster. This paper examines empirically the role of informal contacts in a specific cluster. In a questionnaire survey, we asked a sample of engineers in a regional cluster of wireless communication firms in Northern Denmark a series of questions on informal networks. We analyze whether the engineers actually acquire valuable knowledge through these networks. We find that the engineers do share even quite valuable knowledge with informal contacts. This shows that informal contacts represent an important channel of knowledge diffusion. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.},
note = {33},
pages = {1673-1686},
number = {10},
volume = {33},
journal = {Research Policy},
title = {Knowledge flows through informal contacts in industrial clusters: myth or reality?},
author = {Dahl , M. S. and Pedersen , C. O. R.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2004},
keywords = {innovation; knowledge spillovers; R&D cooperation; regional innovation
systems
GEOGRAPHY; NETWORKS; SYSTEMS},
abstract = {We investigate the impact of knowledge spillovers and R&D cooperation on innovation activities in three German regions. We begin by estimating the knowledge-production function in order to test for interregional difference with regard to the efficiency of innovation activities. In a second step, we analyze the contribution of spillovers from R&D effort of other private firms and of public research institutions to explain these differences. The inclusion of variables for R&D cooperation in the model indicates that R&D cooperation is only of relatively minor importance as a medium for knowledge spillover. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.},
note = {40},
pages = {245-255},
number = {2},
volume = {33},
journal = {Research Policy},
title = {Innovation, regional knowledge spillovers and R&D cooperation},
author = {Fritsch , M. and Franke , G.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2004},
keywords = {internal migration; multilevel event history analysis; transitional
society; ethnicity; Estonia
RESIDENTIAL-MOBILITY; INTERSTATE MIGRATION; ECOLOGICAL VARIABLES;
UNITED-STATES; LIFE-COURSE; EMPLOYMENT; CANADA; DETERMINANTS;
IMMIGRANTS; HISTORY},
abstract = {Recent geographical migration studies have aimed at clarifying the impact of both social environment and people's desires and beliefs on migration behaviour. However, most studies have focused on migration in Western countries, using cross-sectional data and single level methods. In this paper, we study the determinants of internal migration in Estonia, a multicultural society., during the transition period (1989-94). We use longitudinal data and apply multilevel event history methods. We show that both personal and contextual (potentially time-varying) factors are important in determining migration propensity. Moreover, several personal determinants - age, employment status, ethnic origin - interact with environmental conditions in shaping behaviour. While our results of the age differences support a traditional life-course-related migration pattern, our results of the differences in migration behaviour by employment status and ethnic origin imply deepening social polarization and ethnic segregation in post-Soviet Estonia as a result of internal migration.},
note = {72},
pages = {679-696},
number = {6},
volume = {38},
journal = {Regional Studies},
title = {Multilevel analysis of internal migration in a transitional country: The case of Estonia},
author = {Kulu , H. and Billari , F. C.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2004},
keywords = {human capital; brain drain; moral panic; migration policy; research
policy},
abstract = {Brain drain, the diffusion of skilled human capital, particularly scientific and technical human capital (STHC), from home to host country, is of concern to many nations. Traditional brain drain 'control' policies target the human capital embodied in a skilled individual. Based on a case study of brain drain panic in New Zealand in 2000, this paper explores new 'stimulation' brain drain policy approaches, including building research excellence and exploiting the diaspora, that take into account the situated and networked nature of STHC. Diaspora policies imply a reframing of 'national' STHC no longer circumscribed by geographic boundaries but by national affiliation. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.},
note = {40},
pages = {617-630},
number = {4},
volume = {33},
journal = {Research Policy},
title = {Panic and panacea: brain drain and science and technology human capital policy},
author = {Davenport , S.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2004},
keywords = {shakeout and non-shakeout patterns of evolution; knowledge dynamics and
industrial dynamics; turbulence; innovation; cluster
INNOVATION; EVOLUTION; GROWTH; POLICY; FIRMS; LINKS},
abstract = {The process by which knowledge is created, accumulated and eventually destroyed appears crucial to many industrial dynamics patterns, since it shapes the profile of evolution of industries by favouring the entry of new companies, the co-existence of incumbents and new entrants and, eventually, their selective or joint exit over time. Though problematic, and all too often neglected, the connection between two nodes of interest, Industrial Dynamics on the one hand, and Knowledge Dynamics on the other hand, thus appears as a promising field of research. On the basis of a case study in the info-communications industry, we start by emphasizing that this field of research has direct importance at the empirical level. Knowledge dynamics can create specific models of evolution among firms at the local level, such as non-shakeout patterns within the cluster, which significantly differ from more global patterns of evolution in the info-communications industry, now generally oriented towards trends of decline and bust. We further argue in favour of the development of Knowledge-Based Industrial Dynamics, an approach that lies at the interface of industry and knowledge dynamics, and which can explain how a cluster may decrease the barriers to knowledge of clustered companies and, further, create a specific knowledge dynamics that is able to shape the industrial dynamics. Finally, we document how this process of knowledge dynamics was collectively implemented in our case study on the info-communications cluster and decompose the mechanisms that led to a local non-shakeout pattern of industrial dynamics. We conclude with some remarks on the policy implications. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.},
note = {42},
pages = {1687-1706},
number = {10},
volume = {33},
journal = {Research Policy},
title = {Entry, exit and knowledge: evidence from a cluster in the info-communications industry},
author = {Krafft , J.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2004},
keywords = {SOCIAL NETWORKS; STRUCTURAL-ANALYSIS; ORGANIZATIONS; PERSONALITY;
PERFORMANCE; VALUES; PERCEPTIONS; PROXIMITY; DIVERSITY; CONFLICT},
abstract = {Drawing on social exchange and similarity-attraction theories, we hypothesized that individuals' demographic characteristics, values, and personality influence their acquisition of central positions in their teams' social networks. Education and neuroticism predicted centrality five months later; individuals who were highly educated and low in neuroticism became high in advice and friendship centrality and low in adversarial centrality. Team members' values similarity to their teammates also predicted advice and friendship centrality; demographic similarity had limited effects.},
note = {38},
pages = {952-963},
number = {6},
volume = {47},
journal = {Academy of Management Journal},
title = {How do they get there? An examination of the antecedents of centrality in team networks},
author = {Klein , K. J. and Lim , B. C. and Saltz , J. L. and Mayer , D. M.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2004},
keywords = {INTERORGANIZATIONAL IMITATION; ENTRY DECISIONS; MARKET ENTRY;
COMPETITION; FIRM; ENVIRONMENT; ISOMORPHISM; DYNAMICS; IMPACT; GROWTH},
abstract = {The theory of multimarket contact has important but uninvestigated implications for interactions among a firm's divisions because divisions often meet and even compete in multiple geographical and product markets. I hypothesize that firms with incentives to induce competition among divisions will act to reduce levels of multimarket contact among those divisions. Further, I predict that, in markets with substantial uncertainty, firms will increase divisional multimarket contact. I find support for these hypotheses in the setting of the franchised fast-food industry.},
note = {44},
pages = {117-128},
number = {1},
volume = {47},
journal = {Academy of Management Journal},
title = {Divisional multimarket contact within and between multiunit organizations},
author = {Kalnins , A.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2003},
keywords = {regional inequalities; economic geography; UK regions},
abstract = {Regional inequalities in many countries, including the UK, are large and persistent. They show up in a number of economic variables, most of them endogenous, making it difficult for the researcher to identify the underlying causes of the disparities. This paper uses sub-regional data for Great Britain to identify spatial patterns of disparities. It then compares these patterns with those predicted by a theoretical model under a number of alternative hypotheses about the underlying cause of the disparities. The approach lays the groundwork for theory based econometric modelling of the causes of regional inequalities.},
note = {13},
pages = {675-686},
number = {6-7},
volume = {37},
journal = {Regional Studies},
title = {Equilibrium regional disparities: Theory and British evidence},
author = {Rice , P. and Venables , A. J.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2003},
keywords = {external learning; firm size; entrepreneurship
STRATEGIC ALLIANCE FORMATION; REGIONAL NETWORKS; SILICON VALLEY; LOCAL
SEARCH; KNOWLEDGE; INNOVATION; FIRMS; COMPLEMENTARITY; BIOTECHNOLOGY;
LOCALIZATION},
abstract = {An important area of investigation in the field of entrepreneurship examines how people and organizations exploit technological opportunities, Prior research suggests that alliances. the mobility of experts, and the informal mechanisms associated with geographic co-location can present firms with useful opportunities to source technological knowledge. This paper uses insights from strategic management and organizational theory to suggest that organizational size may have an important impact on the extent of external learning, since it differentially affects the likelihood of learning via formal and informal mechanisms. Examining a cross-section of semiconductor startups, we find that external learning increases with startup size. With regard to the specific mechanisms of learning, we find that firms learn from alliances regardless of their size. For the informal mechanisms of mobility and geographic co-location, however, learning decreases with firm size. These results suggest that as startups grow, they may have increasing opportunities to access and exploit external knowledge, but their motivation (and hence ability) to learn from more informal sources may decrease. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.},
note = {64},
pages = {301-315},
number = {2},
volume = {32},
journal = {Research Policy},
title = {Startup size and the mechanisms of external learning: increasing opportunity and decreasing ability?},
author = {Almeida , P. and Dokko , G. and Rosenkopf , L.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2003},
keywords = {producer services; concentration; location; employment estimates
REGIONAL ECONOMIC-DEVELOPMENT; BUSINESS SERVICES; UNITED-KINGDOM;
PERIPHERAL REGIONS; EMPIRICAL-EVIDENCE; GLOBAL ECONOMY; URBAN SYSTEM;
SMALL FIRMS; SOUTH-EAST; LOCATION},
abstract = {This paper builds on the growing body of international research suggesting that the notion of engineering regional comparative advantage and economic growth by attracting 'footloose' high order producer services is seriously flawed. Using Canadian metropolitan, provincial and national data for two disaggregated producer service industries we find that these industries are less footloose and provide less employment than is often believed. Our empirical analysis suggests that the conditions which favour regional economic growth and give rise to locational advantage may not be sufficiently responsive to government policy to generate expected spin-off effects in the absence of a supporting manufacturing sector, or close proximity to customers. The interaction between the industrial organization and the spatial characteristics of this group of service firms may be more important than previously recognized.},
note = {104},
pages = {469-490},
number = {5},
volume = {37},
journal = {Regional Studies},
title = {'High order' producer services in metropolitan Canada: How footloose are they?},
author = {Wernerheim , C. M. and Sharpe , C. A.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2003},
keywords = {national systems of innovation; plastics industry; knowledge
spill-over; markets and hierarchies; trust
TRUST; COMPETITIVENESS; INNOVATION},
abstract = {We will claim in this paper that it was in particular the above-average propensity to share innovative information with customers and competitors which caused the exceptional international competitiveness of the West German plastics industry including chemical firms, plastics fabricators and machine makers. The system of knowledge exchange of this national cluster was shaped in two main steps. In the first half of the 20th century, cartellization and mergers were first tolerated and then even supported by the German government. It was in this period when German chemical firms formed the vertically integrated I.G. Farben concern which provided an optimal organisational framework to explore the new technological path of plastics. After the breaking up of I.G. Farben the firms of the West German chemical firms had to find new ways to maintain inter-industry technological co-operation in the second half of the 20th century. It turned out that they became aware of both contractual and non-contractual solutions of bundling standard good and information which were often placed somewhere between "market" and "hierarchy". It seems to be no accident that all these different institutions did primarily encourage knowledge exchange between firms in geographical and cultural proximity. That is why the knowledge exchanging network of the plastics industry described in this paper has been in particular concentrated on German firms. Even so the question is still open whether this localisation is just a curiosity limited to a special industry cluster or part of a broader German system of knowledge exchange. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.},
note = {61},
pages = {1125-1140},
number = {6},
volume = {32},
journal = {Research Policy},
title = {Shaping the national system of inter-industry knowledge exchange - Vertical integration, licensing and repeated knowledge transfer in the German plastics industry},
author = {Streb , J.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2003},
keywords = {economic integration; increasing returns to scale; market power;
pecuniary externalities; regional policy; spatial economics
TASTE HETEROGENEITY; AGGLOMERATION; MOBILITY; GROWTH; LOCATIONS; MODEL;
TRADE},
abstract = {So far the contribution of new economic geography (NEG) has been mainly positive. Normative analysis and policy implications have lagged behind. The reason is the fear of the consequences of taking too literally the neat structure of the models. In this respect the somewhat incautious aim of this paper is precisely to take NEG models literally and ask what their exact policy implications are. This is viewed as a necessary though preliminary step towards bringing NEG insights to the policy domain.},
note = {34},
pages = {665-673},
number = {6-7},
volume = {37},
journal = {Regional Studies},
title = {Regional policy in the global economy: Insights from new economic geography},
author = {Ottaviano , G. I. P.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2003},
keywords = {competitiveness; knowledge; innovation; trade; regional hierarchies
ECONOMIC-GROWTH; D SPILLOVERS; INCREASING RETURNS; GEOGRAPHY;
BIOTECHNOLOGY},
abstract = {This paper examines the transfer and sharing of knowledge within and between regions in the context of the development of the international economy. It is argued that knowledge is a key resource for innovation which, in turn, is one of the major drivers of economic growth. The firms producing the most novel product innovations in the most significant regional concentrations of innovation are very adept at working across the interface of local and global knowledge transfers. Using data from previous studies combined with the latest regional data from the Community Innovation Survey 3, comparisons are made between the ways in which the most innovative firms in the Greater South East transfer and share knowledge from the local to the international level. The most innovative firms are shown to access international sources of knowledge. This raises questions over the relative importance of local versus international knowledge spillovers for the most innovative firms. Innovative firms tend to concentrate in a minority of key metropolitan regions. These are shown to combine a strong local knowledge capital base with high levels of connectivity to similar regions in the international economy. In this way they are able to combine and decode both codified and tacit knowledge originating from multiple regional, national and international sources. As a result they are able to generate virtuous circles of knowledge, innovation, competitiveness and exports.},
note = {66},
pages = {607-620},
number = {6-7},
volume = {37},
journal = {Regional Studies},
title = {Innovation and urban regions as national and international nodes for the transfer and sharing of knowledge},
author = {Simmie , J.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2003},
keywords = {biotechnology firms; geography of opportunity; spatial heterogeneity
MANHATTAN HOTEL INDUSTRY; EXECUTIVE MIGRATION; SILICON-VALLEY;
NETWORKS; COMPETITION; KNOWLEDGE; MARKET; ENTREPRENEURIAL;
ORGANIZATIONS; AGGLOMERATION},
abstract = {One of the most commonly observed features of the organization of markets is that similar business enterprises cluster in physical space. In this paper, we develop an explanation for firm co-location in high-technology industries that draws upon a relational account of new venture creation. We argue that industries cluster because entrepreneurs find it difficult to leverage the social ties necessary to mobilize essential resources when they reside far from those resources. Therefore, opportunities for high tech entrepreneurship mirror the distribution of critical resources. The same factors that enable high tech entrepreneurship, however, do not necessary promote firm performance. In the empirical analyses, we investigate the effects of geographic proximity to established biotechnology firms, sources of biotechnology expertise (highly-skilled labor), and venture capitalists on the location-specific founding rates and performance of biotechnology firms. The paper finds that the local conditions that promote new venture creation differ from those that maximize the performance of recently established companies. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.},
note = {74},
pages = {229-253},
number = {2},
volume = {32},
journal = {Research Policy},
title = {The geography of opportunity: spatial heterogeneity in founding rates and the performance of biotechnology firms},
author = {Stuart , T. and Sorenson , O.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2003},
keywords = {economic development; agglomeration; world economy; development policy;
income inequalities; regional dynamics
ECONOMIC-DEVELOPMENT; INCREASING RETURNS; GEOGRAPHY; GROWTH; CITIES;
PRODUCTIVITY; AGGLOMERATION; UNEMPLOYMENT; PERFORMANCE; SPILLOVERS},
abstract = {Regional economies are synergy-laden systems of physical and relational assets, and intensifying globalization is making this situation more and not less the case. As such, regions are an essential dimension of the development process, not just in the more advanced countries but also in less-developed parts of the world. Development theorists have hitherto largely tended to overlook this critical issue in favour of an emphasis on macroeconomic considerations. At the same time, conventional theories of the relationship between urbanization and economic development have favoured the view that the former is simply an effect of the latter. To be fully general, the theory of development must incorporate the role of cities and regions as active and causal elements in the economic growth process. This argument has consequences for development policy, especially in regard to the promotion of positive agglomeration economies and the initiation of growth in poorer regions. A related policy problem concerns ways of dealing with the increase in interregional inequalities associated with contemporary globalization. Issues of economic geography are thus of major significance to development theory and practice.},
note = {136},
pages = {579-593},
number = {6-7},
volume = {37},
journal = {Regional Studies},
title = {Regions, globalization, development},
author = {Scott , A. J. and Storper , M.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2003},
keywords = {regional economic performance; clusters; competitiveness; industrial
location
GEOGRAPHIC CONCENTRATION; EXPORTS; INTEGRATION; SPILLOVERS; GROWTH;
CITIES; FIRMS},
abstract = {This paper examines the basic facts about the regional economic performance, the composition of regional economies and the role of clusters in the US economy over period of 1990 to 2000. The performance of regional economies varies markedly in terms of wage, wage growth, employment growth and patenting rate. Based on the distribution of economic activity across geography, we classify US industries into traded, local and resource-dependent. Traded industries account for only about one-third of employment but register much higher wages, far higher rates of innovation and influence local wages. We delineate clusters of traded industries using co-location patterns across US regions. The mix of clusters differs markedly across regions. The performance of regional economies is strongly influenced by the strength of local clusters and the vitality and plurality of innovation. Regional wage differences are dominated by the relative performance of the region in the clusters in which it has positions, with the particular mix of clusters secondary. A series of regional policy implications emerge from the findings.},
note = {47},
pages = {549-578},
number = {6-7},
volume = {37},
journal = {Regional Studies},
title = {The economic performance of regions},
author = {Porter , M. E.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2003},
keywords = {regional studies; scientific concepts; philosophy of science;
innovation; social constructivism; spatial reification
ECONOMIC-GEOGRAPHY; INNOVATION; POLICY; ACCUMULATION; INSTITUTIONS;
KNOWLEDGE; RELEVANCE},
abstract = {How should we respond to MARKUSEN's, 1999, challenge to address the problem of 'fuzzy concepts'? Following a constructionist perspective, this contribution adopts an interpretation of concepts as rhetorical devices that gain prominence through the way they are linked discursively to established concepts and empirical evidence. Conceptual quality, accordingly, depends on the academic practices and conventions that undergird the development of conceptual families and webs in a certain academic field. Applying these ideas to the lineage of regional innovation concepts reveals certain causes of conceptual weakness. For instance, conceptual development in this field strongly draws from ideas articulated in other ( sub) disciplines. While such 'borrowing' has certainly shed new light on questions of regional development, the translation of ideas and concepts appears to be often lacking in accuracy, especially within a longer-term perspective. Likewise, the invocation of empirical material tends to be rather crude. What is lacking, in particular, is an established practice of developing and reviewing more operational concepts (like typologies) that help to bridge the gap between 'grand' concepts and regional development in practice. This leads to the conclusion that conceptual quality requires more emphasis on 'subtle critique', that is, a careful and thoughtful reviewing of the relative value and significance of established and emerging concepts within one conceptual family. Whereas the field of regional studies has a strong tradition in 'grand critiques', i.e. strong discursive competition between conceptual families, it is 'subtle critique' that will improve its level of conceptual quality.},
note = {35},
pages = {719-727},
number = {6-7},
volume = {37},
journal = {Regional Studies},
title = {Towards conceptual quality in regional studies: The need for subtle critique - A response to Markusen},
author = {Lagendijk , A.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2003},
note = {3},
pages = {869-870},
number = {8},
volume = {37},
journal = {Regional Studies},
title = {American space/American place: Geographies of the contemporary United States},
author = {Jansson , D. R.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2003},
keywords = {innovation; small firms; external linkages; embeddedness
RESEARCH-AND-DEVELOPMENT; REGIONAL-DEVELOPMENT; MANUFACTURING FIRMS;
MARKET-STRUCTURE; TECHNOLOGY; SYSTEMS; DETERMINANTS; PERSPECTIVE; UK},
abstract = {Drawing upon a sample of 597 small and medium-sized manufacturing firms, this article investigates the extent to which cooperation for innovation is associated with firm-level product and process 'innovativeness' and, where collaborative relationships are reported, the factors which influence their spatial distribution. With respect to the former issue, the data suggests considerable variety of association across Pavitt's [Research Policy 13 (1994) 343] sectoral taxonomy and innovation type. However, the data also indicates the need for caution when developing network strategies or policies: the evidence presented here is unequivocal in noting that innovation is neither a necessary nor less a sufficient condition for innovation. Moreover, internal resources often act as complements to, or indeed appears to negate the need for, external resources. With regards to the spatial distribution of firm linkages, it appears that increasing firms size and export propensity are positively associated with external linkages at a higher spatial level. Moreover, the spatial reach of innovation-related linkages is also likely to be greater for firms reporting the introduction of relatively novel innovations (i.e. products or processes which are new to the industry). In contrast, smaller firms and firms engaged in incremental product innovations appear more likely to be locally embedded. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.},
note = {73},
pages = {751-770},
number = {5},
volume = {32},
journal = {Research Policy},
title = {Sectoral patterns of small firm innovation, networking and proximity},
author = {Freel , M. S.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2003},
keywords = {RATES; CRIME; POISSON},
abstract = {This study contrasts community violence and an organization's procedural justice climate (or lack thereof) as explanations for employee-instigated workplace aggression in the geographically dispersed plants of a nationwide organization. The findings showed that violent crime rates in the community where a plant resided predicted workplace aggression in that plant, whereas the plant's procedural justice climate did not.},
note = {58},
pages = {317-326},
number = {3},
volume = {46},
journal = {Academy of Management Journal},
title = {The impact of community violence and an organization's procedural justice climate on workplace aggression},
author = {Dietz , J. and Robinson , S. L. and Folger , R. and Baron , R. A. and Schulz , X.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2003},
keywords = {organizational size; scale-based selection; organizational ecology;
scale competition
BREWING INDUSTRY; PERFORMANCE; PERSPECTIVE; MORTALITY; DYNAMICS; FIRMS;
DIFFERENTIATION; DIVERSIFICATION; ACQUISITIONS; DEREGULATION},
abstract = {Based on previous empirical research, size is perhaps the most powerful explanatory organizational covariate in strategic analysis. We suggest that theoretical arguments about size be examined carefully to specify models with explicit comparison sets and with mechanisms linking size and underlying processes to outcomes. We illustrate the approach here by advancing arguments about scale competition within an organizational population. In this effort, we feature a theoretical model of scale-based selection, which posits that a firm's chances of survival decrease with its aggregate distance from larger competitors on a transformed size gradient. The model assumes that the appropriate comparison set consists of all contemporaneous similar organizations competing on the basis of scale and operating in a localized geographic setting. We argue that aggregate distance of a focal firm from larger other firms (a specific form of relative position in the size distribution) reflects the extent to which it can capitalize on potential competitive advantages of scale emanating from economic, political, and social processes. Analyzing the mortality rates of large organizations across the entire histories of automobile industries in four major countries provides support for the theory. We discuss the general implications of our findings for strategic and organizational analysis. Copyright (C) 2003 John Wiley Sons, Ltd.},
note = {71},
pages = {541-558},
number = {6},
volume = {24},
journal = {Strategic Management Journal},
title = {Size (and competition) among organizations: Modeling scale-based selection among automobile producers in four major countries, 1885-1981},
author = {Dobrev , S. D. and Carroll , G. R.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2003},
keywords = {innovation patterns in services; knowledge networks; innovation ranking
versus classification; non-technological innovations},
abstract = {The aim of this paper is, firstly, to contribute to the understanding of innovation patterns in services. To this end, firms which are similar in terms of a large set of innovation indicators were grouped into clusters. For the Swiss case, it was possible to identify five clusters which exhibit clearly different configurations of a large number of innovation-related factors (appropriability, etc.) and several structural properties of firms (size, etc.). The clusters may thus be interpreted as specific "innovation modes". Secondly, we investigated whether these modes are "economically equivalent". In such a case, the unordered classifying of similar firms would be more appropriate than the ranking of industries according to their innovativeness. The evidence supports the classification approach quite well; however, the ranking procedure cannot be completely refuted. Finally, this paper yields some insights into the differences between the innovation patterns prevailing in services and in manufacturing. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.},
note = {33},
pages = {845-863},
number = {5},
volume = {32},
journal = {Research Policy},
title = {Innovation modes in the Swiss service sector: a cluster analysis based on firm-level data},
author = {Hollenstein , H.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2003},
note = {2},
pages = {320-320},
number = {3},
volume = {37},
journal = {Regional Studies},
title = {The Middle East: Geography and geopolitics},
author = {Hadjimichalis , C.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2003},
keywords = {regional economic performance; cumulative causation; new economic
geography; value chains; inter-firm relations; institutional performance
CONVERGENCE; INTEGRATION; NETWORKS; EUROPE; GROWTH},
abstract = {After identifying the general mechanisms underling the centripetal and centrifugal forces whose interplay shapes the relative performance of regional economies, a case is made for disaggregating macroeconomic indicators and examining the sectoral and occupational changes they conceal. Once regional performance is seen as reflecting underling changes in the profiles of regional economies, it is clear that research should examine the forces that determine the changing territorial division of labour. To explain the latter a conceptual framework is presented. This framework combines value chain approaches to the strategies of individual enterprises and analyses of the impact on the performance of enterprises of their wider social environment. Explicit links are established between this framework and some of the insights of the new economic geography.},
note = {43},
pages = {839-854},
number = {8},
volume = {37},
journal = {Regional Studies},
title = {Theorizing regional economic performance and the changing territorial division of labour},
author = {Dunford , M.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2003},
keywords = {labour mobility; migration; commuting; bivariate probit
INTERREGIONAL MIGRATION; REGIONAL MIGRATION; SAMPLE SELECTION;
GREAT-BRITAIN; PROBIT MODEL; WORKPLACE; MARKET; CHOICE; JOB; HOUSEHOLDS},
abstract = {In this paper, we examine how individual labour market status and spatial variations in employment opportunities influence interregional job search behaviour and mobility decisions in Sweden. The econometric analysis is based on 290,000 individual observations and refers to the years 1994-95. The empirical results show that the probability of interregional labour mobility unexpectedly decreases with the accessibility to employment opportunities in neighbouring regions. As expected, the findings reveal that accessibility to job openings in surrounding regions significantly increases the likelihood of choosing commuting as the mobility mode. Moreover, the empirical findings indicate that individual unemployment experience increases the likelihood of mobility as well as migration.},
note = {41},
pages = {827-837},
number = {8},
volume = {37},
journal = {Regional Studies},
title = {Geographical labour mobility: Migration or commuting?},
author = {Eliasson , K. and Lindgren , U. and Westerlund , O.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2003},
keywords = {technology spillovers; tacit knowledge; foreign direct investment;
trade; communications
RESEARCH-AND-DEVELOPMENT; DEVELOPMENT SPILLOVERS; PRODUCTIVITY GROWTH;
GEOGRAPHIC LOCALIZATION; KNOWLEDGE SPILLOVERS; ECONOMIC-DEVELOPMENT;
CAPITAL GOODS; TRADE; MODEL; FIRMS},
abstract = {We review the recent literature on technological change and diffusion to shed new light on the evolution of the world's cross-country income distribution. Technology is viewed as non-rival knowledge in the sense that firms in more than one country can simultaneously use it. R&D investments generate often also a return outside the innovating firm itself; these knowledge externalities are called technology spillovers. We emphasize that technology is to some extent tacit, and technology diffusion often involves the face-to-face interaction of people. Our paper reviews the evidence on whether international trade, foreign direct investment, and other cross-border activities are important for technology diffusion. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.},
note = {127},
pages = {1055-1079},
number = {6},
volume = {32},
journal = {Research Policy},
title = {Convergence and polarization in global income levels: a review of recent results on the role of international technology diffusion},
author = {Gong , G. and Keller , W.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2003},
keywords = {multinational enterprise; geographic scope; internalization theory
FOREIGN DIRECT-INVESTMENT; INTERNATIONAL DIVERSIFICATION; GLOBAL
DIVERSIFICATION; JAPANESE FIRMS; CORPORATE; STRATEGY; MARKET;
FLEXIBILITY; INNOVATION; ECONOMIES},
abstract = {Through an internalization theory lens, an argument is developed to suggest that the traditional concept of geographic scope should be split into two related, but more precise, elements of international asset dispersion and country environment diversity. Subsequently, these new concepts are tested using a structural equation modeling approach on a sample of 580 large multinational enterprises (MNEs). We find that the relationship between economic performance and international asset dispersion is positive, but that country environment diversity is negatively associated with performance, with a positive interaction between them. This study adds to our theoretical understanding of MNEs, and also provides a bridge between the mixed findings of prior research on multinationality by disentangling the unique effects of the latent subcomponents of geographic scope on firm performance. Copyright (C) 2003 John Wiley Sons, Ltd.},
note = {82},
pages = {1289-1306},
number = {13},
volume = {24},
journal = {Strategic Management Journal},
title = {Geographic scope and multinational enterprise performance},
author = {Goerzen , A. and Beamish , P. W.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2003},
keywords = {flexible specialization; subcontracting; contract work; US
manufacturing; Longitudinal Research Database
INDUSTRIAL; ECONOMIES; STATES; GROWTH; CITIES; INTEGRATION; TEMPORARY;
LOCATION; LIMITS; LABOR},
abstract = {Over the last two decades much work in economic geography focused on a fundamental reorganization of capitalist production summarized as shift from Fordist mass production to flexible specialization. Complementing this shift to flexible forms of production is the revival of interest in Marshallian industrial districts characterized by geographically localized and tightly linked networks of small firms. Many a claim was based on anecdotal evidence in selected industries and regions. In order to strengthen the importance of these results, it is necessary to provide comprehensive empirical evidence across a broad range of sectors and regions. This paper traces the key developments in economic geography and examines empirically the extent of flexible specialization in US manufacturing. More specifically the paper focuses on one aspect of this shift and investigates the increase in contract work across all US manufacturing sectors and regions between 1963 and 1997. Employing plant level data for US manufacturing industries, this paper emphasizes the significance of the shift to flexible specialization supported by an increase in the use of contract work across a vast majority of manufacturing sectors, states and metropolitan areas. The paper also demonstrates that pronounced industrial differences prevail and that high contract work ratios explain metropolitan differences in productivity in some but not all sectors.},
note = {86},
pages = {753-771},
number = {8},
volume = {37},
journal = {Regional Studies},
title = {From mass production to flexible specialization: The sectoral and geographical extent of contract work in US manufacturing, 1963-1997},
author = {Essletzbichler , J.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2003},
keywords = {urban economics; property markets; UK
EMPLOYMENT; PRICES; LAND; TOWN},
abstract = {This paper was written to mark 25 years of the ESRC Urban and Regional Economics Workshop which began in 1976. The intellectual development of urban economics is traced from its early roots in the writings of Smith and Marshall through to Krugman's economic geography. Institutional developments are also considered with journal development and expansion reflecting the increasing maturity and internationalization of the discipline. The paper concludes with an assessment of the impact of urban economics on private and public sector property professionals in the UK.},
note = {48},
pages = {521-529},
number = {5},
volume = {37},
journal = {Regional Studies},
title = {The development of urban economics in the twentieth century},
author = {Evans , A. W.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2003},
keywords = {toolkits; user innovation; need heterogeneity; open source software
WILLINGNESS-TO-PAY; CLUSTER-ANALYSIS; SEGMENTATION; VALIDITY; PATTERNS;
MARKET},
abstract = {Manufacturers customarily provide only a few product variants to address the average needs of users in the major segments of markets they serve. When user needs are highly heterogeneous, this approach leaves many seriously dissatisfied. One solution is to enable users to modify products on their own using "innovation toolkits." We explore the effectiveness of this solution in an empirical study of Apache security software. We find high heterogeneity of need in that field, and also find that users modifying their own software to be significantly more satisfied than non-innovating users. We propose that the "user toolkits" solution will be useful in many markets characterized by heterogeneous demand. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.},
note = {48},
pages = {1199-1215},
number = {7},
volume = {32},
journal = {Research Policy},
title = {Satisfying heterogeneous user needs via innovation toolkits: the case of Apache security software},
author = {Franke , N. and von Hippel , E.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2003},
keywords = {alliances; learning; transaction costs; real option theory
RESEARCH-AND-DEVELOPMENT; INTERNATIONAL STRATEGIC ALLIANCES; JOINT
VENTURES; TRANSACTION COST; INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES; BIOTECHNOLOGY
INDUSTRY; COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE; DEVELOPMENT CONSORTIA; SECTORAL
DIFFERENCES; KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER},
abstract = {This paper analyzes factors that influence firms' choice of the organizational form of strategic alliances. I consider arguments suggested by both the contractual and the competence perspectives. In older to distinguish empirically between them. I devote special attention to the role played by the similarity of partner firms' technological specialization. In the empirical section I consider a sample composed of 271 equity joint ventures, non-equity bilateral and unilateral agreements established between each other in the period 1983-86 by 67 North American, European, and Japanese enterprises from the world's largest firms in information technology industries. I examine the effects on the choice of alliance form of a measure of firms' technological proximity based on patents count, while controlling for other variables that are usually considered in the empirical literature. The estimates of binomial and multinomial logit models support the competence-based argument that in technological alliances divergence in partners' technological specialization results in a higher propensity to use equity forms. Overall, the findings suggest that both the contractual and competence perspectives provide valuable complementary insights into the determinants of alliance form. Copyright (C) 2003 John Wiley Sons, Ltd.},
note = {89},
pages = {1209-1229},
number = {12},
volume = {24},
journal = {Strategic Management Journal},
title = {Alliance form: A test of the contractual and competence perspectives},
author = {Colombo , M. G.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2003},
keywords = {geographical clustering; geographic proximity; agglomerative advantages
ACADEMIC RESEARCH; TRUST; KNOWLEDGE},
abstract = {This paper analyses what types of inter-firm linkages are stronger between geographically proximate firms compared to distant firms. It compares survey results of clustered and dispersed firms in the German aeronautic (supplying) industry. Results show that geographic proximity is relevant and statistically significant for inter-firm linkages that may lead to the following effects: labour market pooling; knowledge spillovers; demanding local customers; and trust-based effects. All in all, results suggest that if agglomerative advantages are at work they are, at best, operating weakly. However, the results of this case study are not sufficient to confirm or disprove the theoretical arguments of agglomeration advantages.},
note = {37},
pages = {453-467},
number = {5},
volume = {37},
journal = {Regional Studies},
title = {Does geographic proximity matter? Evidence from clustered and non-clustered aeronautic firms in Germany},
author = {Lublinski , A. E.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2003},
keywords = {complexity; space and spatiality; regional political economy; modelling
methodology
SPACE; ECONOMETRICS; DYNAMICS},
abstract = {Contemporary research into the evolution of regional economies is characterized by a dualism of 'new' economic geographies based upon dominant ways of knowing in both economics and geography. This dualism of theoretical and methodological perspectives encompasses both qualitative versus quantitative ways of knowing, and cultural versus economic explanations of regional growth and change. In this paper I explore an alternative way of thinking about regions that is grounded in the theoretical suppositions of classical/Marxian political economy, and yet employs both mathematical and statistical reasoning. To facilitate my argument, I contrast this regional political economy with the theory and empirics of explanation claims derived from neoclassically oriented approaches to regional growth and change. I focus on how both space and time are conceptualized in each approach, and the implications for both theory construction and empirical testing. I conclude by outlining the challenges facing a genuinely geographical perspective that takes both space and time seriously.},
note = {47},
pages = {687-695},
number = {6-7},
volume = {37},
journal = {Regional Studies},
title = {Modelling economic landscapes: A geographical perspective},
author = {Plummer , P.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2003},
keywords = {foreign direct investment; embeddedness; regions; institutions;
enclaves; linkages
REGIONAL-DEVELOPMENT; INWARD INVESTMENT; SILICON GLEN; POLICY;
GLOBALIZATION; INNOVATION; SCOTLAND; PLANTS; FIRMS; LABOR},
abstract = {The impact of foreign direct investment (FDI) upon host regions is a topic of perennial interest within the fields of regional economics, industrial geography and regional development. Much of the early literature here draws negative conclusions regarding the wider indirect impacts of FDI on host regions, pointing to the branch plant syndrome. In light of significant processes of corporate restructuring and the build-up of host region institutional capacities, however, recent literature has claimed that the plants of multinational enterprises (MNEs) are becoming increasingly 'embedded' in regional economies. Against this backdrop, this paper aims to provide a critical assessment of the regional 'embeddedness' of FDI in Wales and the North East of England. Based upon an extensive survey of overseas-owned manufacturing affiliates in these regions, the paper examines key indicators of MNE embeddedness, and assesses the influence of regional agencies on the embedding process. In general, we find little evidence of increasing embeddedness while the effects of regional differences in institutional capacity on the embedding process appear to be somewhat limited. As such, we suggest that the idea of 'extended enclaves' encapsulates some key dimensions of the relationships between MNEs and the economies of peripheral UK regions.},
note = {74},
pages = {27-40},
number = {1},
volume = {37},
journal = {Regional Studies},
title = {Embedding the multinationals? Institutions and the development of overseas manufacturing affiliates in Wales and North East England},
author = {Phelps , N. A. and Mackinnon , D. and Stone , I. and Braidford , P.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2003},
keywords = {research methods; economic geography; critical regional studies
ECONOMIC-GEOGRAPHY; LOCAL GOVERNANCE; ORGANIZATION; INTERVIEW;
POLITICS; MARKET; RIGOUR; GAMES; LABOR},
abstract = {Critical regional studies and economic geography have both taken 'qualitative turns' over the past 15 years. The paper takes issue with the claim that this methodological shift has entailed declining standards of evidence, a proclivity for 'fuzzy' theorizing, and a drift into policy irrelevance, making instead a positive argument for the further deepening of intensive, case-study approaches. This need not occur at the expense of quantitative research, because there is not a zero-sum competition in research methods. There should be continuing methodological pluralism, and intensive methods have a legitimate and important role to play. In this spirit, an argument is made for extending case-study methodologies in critical regional studies. The field needs more, not less, of this kind of work. There is no reason to believe that it will be any less rigorous or relevant as a result.},
note = {75},
pages = {729-740},
number = {6-7},
volume = {37},
journal = {Regional Studies},
title = {Fuzzy old world: A response to Markusen},
author = {Peck , J.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2003},
keywords = {communication; knowledge exchange; innovation; networking;
technological districts
R-AND-D; ECONOMIC-GEOGRAPHY; DYNAMICS; CONVERGENCE; SPILLOVERS;
INDUSTRY; SYSTEMS; GROWTH; MODEL; FIRM},
abstract = {Elaborating on the literature on innovation systems and technological districts, this paper suggests that localization is conducive to a multilateral exchange of interdependent and external knowledge bases but requires explicit communication efforts in order to lead to innovation. In particular, the case of the Brianza technological district shows that different and yet complementary knowledge bases are built upon the institutional variety characterizing the local economic system. Moreover and more importantly, this case provides empirical evidence for the fact that the construction of an interorganizational network of dissimilar but complementary cooperative relations - in contrast to a concentration on one dominant kind of interaction - is the key source of innovation and growth of local firms.},
note = {53},
pages = {159-172},
number = {2},
volume = {37},
journal = {Regional Studies},
title = {Institutional variety, networking and knowledge exchange: Communication and innovation in the case of the Brianza technological district},
author = {Patrucco , P. P.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2003},
keywords = {corporate spin-off firms; inter-organizational relationships; the
resource-based theory; the resource-dependence theory; corporate
diversification
TECHNOLOGY-BASED FIRMS; RESOURCE-BASED VIEW; COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE;
STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT; ORGANIZATIONAL FORMS; ABSORPTIVE-CAPACITY;
PERFORMANCE; DIVERSIFICATION; RELATEDNESS; INNOVATION},
abstract = {This paper proposes a taxonomy of corporate spin-off firms by exploring the nature of parent firm-spin-off firm relationship. Relying on the resource-based and the resource-dependence theory, special attention is paid to the complementarity of the resource base of the parent firm relative to its spin-off, the intensity of collaboration between the parent and the spin-off, and the dependence of the spin-off firm on the resources provided by the parent organization. Based on cluster analysis, we were able to identify three distinct groups of corporate spin-off firms: spin-offs developing new technologies, spin-offs serving new markets and restructuring spin-offs. These groups differ from one another in terms of the intensity of resource sharing linkages and knowledge transfer between the parent and the spin-off, timing of separation, as well as the direction and breadth of their new product development activities. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.},
note = {80},
pages = {463-481},
number = {3},
volume = {32},
journal = {Research Policy},
title = {From a corporate venture to an independent company: a base for a taxonomy for corporate spin-off firms},
author = {Parhankangas , A. and Arenius , P.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2003},
keywords = {technological trajectory; innovation; biotechnology; green revolution;
gene revolution; modernization; globalization
AGRICULTURAL-RESEARCH; DEVELOPING-COUNTRIES; INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY;
TECHNICAL CHANGE; PUBLIC SCIENCE; TRIPLE-HELIX; INNOVATION;
BIOTECHNOLOGY; KNOWLEDGE; PRIVATE},
abstract = {The dynamics of technology development along the technological trajectories of the Green Revolution and the Gene Revolution could be explicated by the social morphologies of modernization and globalization. The Green Revolution was shaped by the exigencies of modernization, while the Gene Revolution is being shaped by the imperatives of neo-liberal economic globalization. Innovation, development, and diffusion of technologies followed different trajectories in these two realms because of being part of different innovation systems. Considerations of private gain and profit in the form of high returns to shareholders of agro-biotech corporations of global reach, largely, determine the dynamics of technological innovation in the Gene Revolution. Technology transfer and local adaptive work in the Green Revolution was carried out in the international public domain with the objective of developing research capacity in post-colonial Third World agriculture to increase food production to avert hunger-led political insurrection during the Cold War. Differentiating these two trajectories is important not only due to the normative implications inherent in comparing the impacts of these two "revolutions", but also due to the important lessons we learn about how different contexts of innovation in the same technology cluster could evolve into contrasting research policy regimes. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.},
note = {112},
pages = {971-990},
number = {6},
volume = {32},
journal = {Research Policy},
title = {Mapping technological trajectories of the Green Revolution and the Gene Revolution from modernization to globalization},
author = {Parayil , G.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2003},
keywords = {new geographical economics
MONOPOLISTIC COMPETITION; TRADE; GROWTH},
abstract = {Mainstream economics and geography have largely developed separately. With some notable exceptions, this had led to a situation in which economists and geographers analyse similar issues, but do so in a very different framework and without taking much notice of each other's work. The main topic of this paper is to show that something might be gained once communication is improved. We illustrate this by means of a discussion of 'new geographical economics' also known as the 'new economic geography', to date the only mainstream theory in economics that takes the economics of location seriously.},
note = {65},
pages = {637-648},
number = {6-7},
volume = {37},
journal = {Regional Studies},
title = {Rethinking the 'new' geographical economics},
author = {Brakman , S. and Garretsen , H.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2003},
keywords = {entrepreneurship; innovation; network; incubation; ethnic business
ETHNIC ENTREPRENEURSHIP; INDUSTRIAL DISTRICTS; TECHNOLOGY DISTRICTS;
GROWTH; MIGRATION; MOBILITY; ENCLAVES; BRITAIN; SEARCH; FIRMS},
abstract = {In this survey paper the literature on entrepreneurship is summarized from the perspective of geographical seedbed conditions and network constellations. We argue that in many cases urban areas offer favourable incubator conditions for innovative entrepreneurship, as a result of economies of density and the opportunities created by the city as a nucleus of a broader network, both local and global. Clearly, network participation by creative entrepreneurs does not necessarily need an urban base, although informal spatial networks among specific business segments (e.g. ethnic niches) may be favourable for economic performance. We conclude that a modern entrepreneur tends to become increasingly a creative network operator and manager.},
note = {104},
pages = {395-405},
number = {4},
volume = {37},
journal = {Regional Studies},
title = {Entrepreneurship in a modern network economy},
author = {Nijkamp , P.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2003},
keywords = {strategic groups; institutional pressures; differentiation
RESOURCE-BASED VIEW; GROUP MEMBERS; ORGANIZATIONAL CONFIGURATIONS;
INSURANCE INDUSTRY; MOBILITY BARRIERS; GROUP-DYNAMICS; RIVALRY;
BANKING; ADVANTAGE; MARKET},
abstract = {Drawing from economic and cognitive theories, researchers have argued that firms within an industry tend to cluster together, following similar strategies. Their positioning in strategic groups, in turn, is argued to influence firm actions and firm performance. We extend this research to examine performance implications of competitive positioning not just among but also within groups. We find that performance differences within groups are significantly larger than across groups, suggesting that some firms within groups develop better resource or competitive positions. We also find that secondary firms within a group outperform both core firms within the group and solitary firms, the latter being those not belonging to any multifirm strategic group. This suggests that secondary firms may be able to effectively balance the benefits of strategic distinctiveness with institutional pressures for similarity. We conclude that the primary implication of strategic groups does not relate to the ability of firms to create stable, advantageous market segments through collusion. Instead, strategic groups represent a range of viable strategic positions firms may stake out and use as reference points. Moreover, our results concerning secondary firms indicate that firm positioning within a group structure can have performance implications. Copyright (C) 2002 John Wiley Sons, Ltd.},
note = {83},
pages = {161-181},
number = {2},
volume = {24},
journal = {Strategic Management Journal},
title = {Competitive positioning within and across a strategic group structure: The performance of core, secondary and solitary firms},
author = {McNamara , G. and Deephouse , D. L. and Luce , R. A.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2003},
keywords = {biotechnology; pharmaceuticals; innovation systems; Sweden;
collaboration
CAPITALISM; INNOVATION; SYSTEM; FLOWS},
abstract = {This article addresses the validity of assumptions about the importance of co-locality for innovation, by analyzing whether or not co-location matters for formal knowledge collaboration in the Swedish biotechnology-pharmaceutical sector, or biotech-pharma sector. The population of Swedish biotech-pharma firms has been defined, based on the three criteria of geographical location, their engagement in active knowledge development, and their specialized knowledge/product focus. The firms' patterns of regional, national and international collaboration with other firms and with universities is analyzed, as well as the differing collaborative patterns of small versus large firm. In addressing the theoretical questions about the relative importance of co-location for innovation, the article also provides an empirical overview of the Swedish biotech-pharma sector, especially trends over time. This paper thus contributes to the literature by expanding our empirical knowledge about one European biotech-pharma sectoral system, e.g. Sweden, as well as addressing the theoretical question about the relative importance of co-location for formal knowledge collaboration. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.},
note = {41},
pages = {483-501},
number = {3},
volume = {32},
journal = {Research Policy},
title = {Does co-location matter for formal knowledge collaboration in the Swedish biotechnology-pharmaceutical sector?},
author = {McKelvey , M. and Alm , H. and Riccaboni , M.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2003},
keywords = {location; clustering theory; methodology; transactions; costs
ZIPFS LAW; CITIES; AGGLOMERATION; COMPETITION; EXPLANATION; ECONOMICS;
CLUSTERS; FIRM},
abstract = {In this paper we will argue that new academic fashions, new international institutional arrangements, new communications technology and new developments in data availability, have all renewed the need for a redevelopment of analytical industrial location theory. Our paper will argue that the microeconomic foundations of industrial location theory must now be reconsidered. In particular, the methodological basis of traditional industrial location models needs to be reconciled with recent models of clustering, the new economic geography literature, and also more aggregate systemic levels of analysis. We will argue that in order to do this it is necessary: first, to specify the transactions-cost assumptions underlying these various approaches; second, to adopt broader definitions of spatial transactions costs; and third, to incorporate environmental characteristics within an orthodox location-production type of framework. The insights gained by this integrated micro-level approach will also provide new directions for more aggregate systemic approaches, as well as clarifying the both the strengths and limitations of the currently fashionable models of clustering.},
note = {63},
pages = {649-663},
number = {6-7},
volume = {37},
journal = {Regional Studies},
title = {The rise, fall and rise again of industrial location theory},
author = {McCann , P. and Sheppard , S.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2003},
keywords = {regional concepts; methodology; regional policy},
abstract = {Contemporary human geographers must work to clarify and translate new critical theory insights for a broader audience. Better evidence will both strengthen the theory-building exercise and render our insights more powerful in the real world of policy and action. In response to the critics of my original 'fuzzy concepts' paper, I welcome their several contributions the case for fuzziness as a tactical move, the need for subtle rather than grand critique and the means for strengthening qualitative research methods. I pose three further questions. Who is welcomed and/or excluded as participants in the dialogue? What is the usefulness of the deductive/inductive distinction? Is there a quantitative/qualitative divide? I argue for engaging additional academic and lay participants and for moving beyond the fetishism of the two methodological dualisms.},
note = {19},
pages = {747-751},
number = {6-7},
volume = {37},
journal = {Regional Studies},
title = {On conceptualization, evidence and impact: A response to Hudson, Lagendijk and Peck},
author = {Markusen , A.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2003},
keywords = {regional concepts; methodology; regional policy; agglomeration
FLEXIBLE ACCUMULATION; INDUSTRIAL DISTRICTS; EMPIRICAL-ASSESSMENT;
PRODUCTION SYSTEMS; SILICON VALLEY; GEOGRAPHY; ECONOMIES; CITIES;
FLEXIBILITY; POSTFORDISM},
abstract = {Regional analysis is increasingly populated by fuzzy concepts that lack clarity and are difficult to test or operationalize: flexible specialization, windows of opportunity, resurgent regions, world cities, cooperative competition. Many analyses rely on anecdote or singular case studies, while contrarian cases and more comprehensive and comparative inquiries are ignored. Methodology is often not discussed adequately. This trend has been accompanied by an increasing detachment from political and policy advocacy. In this paper, I define fuzzy concepts and relate their proliferation to an emphasis on process rather than institutions, agents and behaviour. To demonstrate my arguments, I review three highly acclaimed bodies of work-flexible specialization with its re-agglomeration thesis; world cities; and 'cooperative competition' in industrial districts a la Silicon Valley. The paper makes the case for adherence to social science norms of conceptual coherence, causal theory (with both behavioural and structural components) and subjection of theory to the rigours of evidence, where the latter may encompass qualitative and quantitative techniques. Greater commitment to entering the policy debate and to making results accessible and informative to policymakers, regional planners and political activists would substantially strengthen this body of research and its usefulness.},
note = {93},
pages = {701-717},
number = {6-7},
volume = {37},
journal = {Regional Studies},
title = {Fuzzy concepts, scanty evidence, policy distance: The case for rigour and policy relevance in critical regional studies},
author = {Markusen , A.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2003},
keywords = {hard disk; sub-market; institutional; environmental
TECHNOLOGICAL DISCONTINUITIES; DYNAMICS; ORGANIZATIONS; GOVERNANCE;
ADVANTAGE; SURVIVAL; KEIRETSU; BUSINESS; FAILURE; POWER},
abstract = {Firms need to access skills, capital and customers to enter into an industry initially and the choices they make to access these resources are likely to exert path dependent influences over subsequent entry behavior into new sub-markets. This paper explores how firms configure themselves to access skills, capital and customers and reports data on their association with whether and when firms enter new sub-markets in the worldwide hard disk drive (HDD) industry. While, as with other studies, there appear to be geographic differences between US and Japanese firms in sub-market entry behavior, these are shown not to simply reflect differences in region: US startup firms with former IBM personnel and Japanese incumbent firms with keiretsu linkages to their customers, exhibit different entry behavior than other firms in the same region. The analysis suggests that entry decisions are influenced by firms' configuration choices to access needed resources and that the menu of configuration options available to firm managers varies across different institutional settings. (C) 2002 Published by Elsevier Science B.V.},
note = {56},
pages = {659-678},
number = {4},
volume = {32},
journal = {Research Policy},
title = {Environmental influences upon firm entry into new sub-markets - Evidence from the worldwide hard disk drive industry conditionally},
author = {Chesbrough , H. W.}
}

@article { ,
year = {2002},
keywords = {motion-picture industry; cultural economy; Hollywood; agglomeration;
regional development; globalization
VANCOUVER FILM INDUSTRY; FLEXIBLE SPECIALIZATION; VERTICAL INTEGRATION;
CULTURAL ECONOMY; MARKET; ORGANIZATION; CREATIVITY; LOCATION; NETWORKS;
POLICY},
abstract = {In this paper, I offer a reinterpretation of the economic geography of the so-called new Hollywood. The argument proceeds in six main stages. First, I briefly examine the debate on industrial organization in Hollywood that has gone on in the literature since the mid-1980s, and I conclude that the debate has become unnecessarily polarized. Second, I attempt to show how an approach that invokes both flexible specialization and systems-house forms of production is necessary to any reasonably complete analysis of the organization of production in the new Hollywood. Third, and on this basis, I argue that the Hollywood production system is deeply bifurcated into two segments comprising: (1) the majors and their cohorts of allied firms on the one hand; and (2) the mass of independent production companies on the other. Fourth, I reaffirm the continuing tremendous agglomerative attraction of Hollywood as a locale for motion-picture production, but I also describe in analytical and empirical terms how selected kinds of activities seek out satellite production locations in other parts of the world. Fifth, I show how the majors continue to extend their global reach by means of their ever more aggressive marketing and distribution divisions, and I discuss how this state of affairs depends on and amplifies the competitive advantages of Hollywood. Sixth and finally, I reflect upon some of the challenges that Hollywood must face up to as new cultural-products agglomerations arise all over the globe, offering potential challenges to its hegemony.},
note = {80},
pages = {957-975},
number = {9},
volume = {36},
journal = {Regional Studies},
title = {A new map of Hollywood: The production and distribution of American motion pictures},
author = {Scott , A. J.}
}

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